Encyclopedia of Law & Economics - 9500 Spontaneous Emergence of Law. Costumary Law

Ackerman, Bruce A. (1986), 'Law, Economics and the Problem of Legal Culture', Duke Law Journal , 929-947.

Adelstein, Richard P. (1979), 'The Moral Costs of Crime: Prices, Information and Organization', in Gray, Charles M. (ed.), The Costs of Crime , Beverly Hills (CA), Sage Publications, 233-252.

Adelstein, Richard P. (1981), 'Institutional Function and Evolution in the Criminal Process', 76 Northwestern University Law Review , 1-99.

Adelstein, Richard P. and Peretz, Steven I. (1985), 'The Competition of Technologies in Markets for Ideas: Copyright and Fair Use in Evolutionary Perspective', 5 International Review of Law and Economics , 209-238.

Bailey, Martin J. and Rubin, Paul H. (1994), 'A Positive Theory of Legal Change', 14 International Review of Law and Economics , 467-477.

Barnes, David W. and Stout, Lynn A. (1992), Economics of Constitutional Law and Public Choice , West Publishing.

Bell, John W. (1977), 'Averting a Crisis in Product Liability : An Evolutionary Process of Socioeconomic Justice', 65 Illinois Bar Journal , 640-648.

Benson, Bruce L (1990), The Enterprise of Law: Justice Without the State , San Francisco, Pacific Research Institute for Public Policy.

Benson, Bruce L. (1988), 'Legal Evolution in Primitive Societies', 144 Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics , 772-788.

Benson, Bruce L. (1989), 'Enforcement of Private Property Rights in Primitive Societies: Law Without Government', 9 Journal of Libertarian Studies , 1-26.

Benson, Bruce L. (1989), 'The Spontaneous Evolution of Commercial Law', 55 Southern Economic Journal , 644-661.

Benson, Bruce L. (1990), 'Customary Law With Private Means of Resolving Disputes and Dispensing Justice: A Description of a Modern System of Law and Order Without State Coercion', 9 Journal of Libertarian Studies , 25-42. Reprinted in as "Law and Order Without State Coercion", in Veljanovski, Cento (ed.), Regulation, Regulators and the Market, 1991, London, Institute of Economic Affairs, 159-179.

Benson, Bruce L. (1991), 'Reciprocal Exchange as the Basis for Recognition of Law: Examples from American History', 10 Journal of Libertarian Studies , 53-82.

Benson, Bruce L. (1991), 'An Evolutionary Contractarian View of Primitive Law: The Institutions and Incentives Arising Under Customary American Indian Law', 5 Review of Austrian Economics , 65-89.

Benson, Bruce L. (1992), 'Customary Law as a Social Contract: International Commercial Law', 2 Constitutional Political Economy , 1-27.

Benson, Bruce L. (1992), 'The Development of Criminal Law and Its Enforcement: Public Interest or Political Transfers', 3 Journal des Economistes et des Etudes Humaines , 79-108.

Benson, Bruce L. (1992), 'Market Failure Versus Government Failure in the Production of Adjudication', in Bowman, Gary W., Hakim, Simon. and Seidenstat, Paul (eds.), Privatizing the United States Justice System: Police, Adjudication, and Corrections Services from the Private Sector , Jefferson (NC), McFarland & Co., 203-225.

Benson, Bruce L. (1992), 'The Evolution of Values and Institutions in a Free Society: The Under-Pinnings of a Market Economy', 5 International Journal on the Unity of Sciences , 411-442. Reprinted in Radnitzky, Gerard and Bouillon, Hardy (eds.), Values and the Social Order Vol.I, 1995, Aldershot, Avebury, 87-125.

Benson, Bruce L. (1992), 'Customary Indian Law: Two Case Studies', in Anderson, Terry L. (ed.), Property Rights and Indian Economics , Rowman and Littlefield Press.

Benson, Bruce L. (1993), 'The Impetus for Recognizing Private Property and Adopting Ethical Behavior in a Market Economy: Natural Law, Government Law, or Evolving Self-Interest', 6 Review of Austrian Economics , 43-80.

Benson, Bruce L. (1994), 'Emerging From the Hobbesian Jungle: Might Takes and Makes Rights', 5 Constitutional Political Economy , 129-158. Reprinted inTranslated into Spanish and republished (1995) Las Instituciones y Los Derechos de Propiedad al Emerger de la Jungla Hobbesiana: La Fuerza Quita los Reprinted Derechos y los Crea Libertas, 12, 35-75.

Benson, Bruce L. (1994), 'Legal Philosophy', in Boettke, Peter J. (ed.), The Elgar Companion to Austrian Economics , London, Edward Elgar, 270-275.

Benson, Bruce L. (1995), 'Competition Among Legal Institutions: Implications for the Evolution of Law', in Gerken, Luden (ed.), Competition Among Institutions , London, MacMillan, 153-175.

Benson, Bruce L. (1995), 'An Exploration of the Impact of Modern Arbitration Statutes on the Development of Arbitration in the United States', 11 Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization , 479-501.

Bromley, Daniel W. (1989), 'Institutional Change and Economic Efficiency', 23 Journal of Economic Issues , 735-759.

Buxbaum, Hertig and Hirsch, Hopt (eds.), European Economic and Business Law, Legal and Economic Analyses on Integration and Harmonization , Berlin, 401 p.

Cassone, Alberto and Marchese, Carla (1994), 'Indulgenze religiose: un'analisi economica', 2-3 Economia delle scelte pubbliche , 191-209.

Christainsen, Gregory B. (1990), 'Law as a Discovery Procedure', 9 Cato Journal , 497-530.

Clark, Robert C. (1981), 'The Interdisciplinary Study of "Legal Evolution"', 90 Yale Law Journal , 1238-1274.

Clay, Karen (1997), 'Trade Without Law: Private-Order Institutions in Mexican California', 13 Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization , 202-231.

Cooter, Robert D. (1989), 'Kin Groups and the Common Law Process', in Larmour, Peter (ed.), Customary Land Tenure: Registration and Decentralisation in Papua New Guinea , Monograph XXIX, Papua New Guinea Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research.

Cooter, Robert D. (1991), 'Inventing Market Property: The Land Courts of Papua New Guinea', 25 Law and Society Review , 759-801.

Cooter, Robert D. (1993), 'Against Legal Centrism: Review of Robert C. Ellickson's Order Without Law', California Law Review , 417 ff.

Cooter, Robert D. (1994), 'Structural Adjudication and the New Law Merchant: A Model of Decentralized Law', 14 International Review of Law and Economics , 215-231. Reprinted under the title, "The Structural Approach to Decentralizing Law: A Theory of Games and Norms," in a book edited by Gerard Hertig.

Cooter, Robert D. (1994), 'Decentralized Law for A Complex Economy', 23 Southwestern Law Review, Hayek Symposium , 443-451.

Cooter, Robert D. (1996), 'Decentralized Law for a Complex Economy: The Structural Approach to Adjudicating the New Law Merchant', University of Pennsylvania Law Review .

Dowd, Kevin (1997), 'Anarchy, Warfare and Social Order: Comment on Hirshleifer', June Journal of Political Economy .

Elliott, E. Donald (1984), 'Holmes and Evolution: Legal Process as Artificial Intelligence', 13 Journal of Legal Studies , 113-146.

Elliott, E. Donald, Ackerman, Bruce A. and Millian, John C. (1985), 'Toward a Theory of Statutory Evolution: The Federaliza tion of Environmental Law', 1 Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization , 313-340.

Epstein, Richard A. (1980), 'The Static Conception of the Common Law', 9 Journal of Legal Studies , 253-275.

Epstein, Richard A. (1992), 'The Path to the T. J. Hooper: The Theory and History of Custom in the Law of Tort', 21 Journal of Legal Studies , 1-38.

Frech, H. Edward III (1972), 'The Public Choice Theory of Murray N. Rothbard: A Modern Anarchist', 14 Public Choice , 143-154.

Fried, Charles, Summers, Robert S., Tullock, Gordon and Arrow, Kenneth J. (1982), 'Commentary on Hirschleifer Paper', 4 Research in Law and Economics , 61-208.

Friedman, David D. (1979), 'Private Creation and Enforcement of Law: A Historical Case', 8 Journal of Legal Studies , 399-415.

Galanter, Marc (1987), 'Conceptualizing Legal Change and Its Effect: A Comment on George Priest's "Measuring Legal Change"', 3 Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization , 235-241.

Goldberg, Victor P. (1974), 'Institutional Change and the Quasi-Invisible Hand', 17 Journal of Law and Economics , 461-492. Reprinted in Goldberg, Victor P. (ed.), Readings in the Economics of Contract Law, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press,1989, 169-173.

Goodman, John C. (1978), 'An Economic Theory of the Evolution of the Common Law', 7 Journal of Legal Studies , 393-406.

Gordon, Wendy J. (1992), 'Of Harms and Benefits: Torts, Restitution, and Intellectual Property', 21 Journal of Legal Studies , 449-482.

Grady, Mark F. (1992), 'Toward a Positive Economic Theory of Antitrust', 30 Economic Inquiry , 225 ff.

Grady, Mark F. (1995), 'Legal Evolution and Precedent', 3 Annual Review of Law & Ethics , 147 ff.

Hesse, GŸnter (1980), 'Der Property-Rights-Ansatz. Eine škonomische Theorie der VerŠnderung des Rechts? (The Property Rights Approach. An Economic Theory of Legal Change?)', 195 Jahrbuch fŸr Nationalškonomie und Statistik , 481 ff.

Hesse, GŸnter (1983), 'Zur ErklŠrung der €nderung von Handlungsrechten mit Hilfe der škonomischen Theorie (The Explanation of the Change of Property Rights w)', in SchŸller, Alfred (ed.), Property Rights und škonomische Theorie , MŸnchen, Vahlen, 79-109.

Hirshleifer, Jack (1982), 'Evolutionary Models in Economics and Law: Cooperation versus Conflict Strategies', 4 Research in Law and Economics , 1-60.

Hirshleifer, Jack and Coll Martinez, Juan Carlos (1988), 'What Strategies can Support the Evolutionary Emergence of Cooperation?', 32 Journal of Conflict Resolution , 367-398.

Holmes, Oliver Wendell (1980), The Common Law , Boston, Little Brown.

Hovenkamp, Herbert J. (1983), 'The Economics of Legal History', 67 Minnesota Law Review , 645-697.

Huang, Peter H. and Wu, Ho-Mou (1994), 'More Order without More Law: A Theory of Social Norms and Organizational Cultures', 10 Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization , 390-406.

Jaffe, Austin J. (1988), 'Toward an Evolutionary Theory of Trade Associations: The Case of Real Estate Appraisers', 16 American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association Journal , 230-256.

Kennedy, Duncan (1981), 'Cost-Reduction Theory as Legitimation', 90 Yale Law Journal , 1275-1283.

Kitch, Edmund W. (1987), 'Law and the Economic Order', in Lipson, Leon and Wheeler, Stanton (eds.), Law and the Social Sciences , New York, Russel Sage Foundation, 109-149.

Kitch, Edmund W. (1991), 'Business Organization Law: State or Federal?', in Buxbaum, Richard M., Hertig, Gerard, Hirsch, Alain and Hopt, Klaus J. (eds.), European Business Law , Berlin, Waller de Gruyter, 35 ff.

Kitch, Edmund W. (1996), 'Competition Between Securities Markets: Good or Bad?', in X (ed.), The Future for the Securities Market: Legal and Regulatory Aspects , Oxford, Clarendon, 233 ff.

Kobayashi, Bruce H. and Ribstein, Larry E. (1996), 'Evolution and Spontaneous Uniformity: Evidence from the Evolution of the Limited Liability Company', 34 Economic Inquiry .

Kornhauser, Lewis A. (1992), 'Are There Cracks in the Foundations of Spontaneous Order? Book Review of Ellickson, Order without Law', 67 New York University Law Review , 647 ff.

Kraus, Jody S. (1997), 'Segal Design and the Evolution of Commercial Norms', 16 Journal of Legal Studies , 377-411.

Krauss, Michael I. (1994), 'La rŽglementation contre le marchŽ dans le dŽveloppement de normes (Regulation against the Market in Norms Formation)', 5 Journal des Economistes et des Etudes Humaines , 573-599.

Kubasek, N. (1985), 'The Artificiality of Economic Models as a Guide for Legal Evolution', 33 Cleveland State Law Review , 505-512.

Lehmann, Michael (1982), '…konomie, Sozialbiologie - Humanwissenschaften. †ber die Notwendigkeit und Mšglichkeit einer interdisziplinŠren Grundlagenforschung (Economics, Social Biology - Human Sciences. About the Necessity and Possibility of a Interdisciplinary Fundamental Re)', Der Betriebs-Berater , 1997-2004.

Lehmann, Michael (1986), 'Evolution in Biologie, …konomie und Jurisprudenz (Evolution in Biology, Economics and Jurisprudence)', 17 Rechtstheorie , 463-477.

Lemieux, Pierre (1983), Du libŽralisme ˆ l'anarcho-capitalisme (From Liberalism to Anarcho-Capitalism) , Paris, Presses Universitaires de France (PUF).

Lemieux, Pierre (1988), L'anarcho-capitalisme (What is Anarcho-Capitalism?) , Paris, Presses Universitaires de France (PUF).

Libecap, Gary D. (1978), 'Economic Variables and the Development of the Law: The Case of Western Mineral Rights', 38 Journal of Economic History , 338-362.

MacKaay, Ejan (1988), 'L'ordre spontanŽ comme fondement du droit - un survol des modles de l'Žmergence des rgles dans une sociŽtŽ civile (Spontaneous Order as Foundation of Law - A Survey of Models of the Emergence of Rules in Civil Society)', 22 Revue Juridique Themis , 347-383.

MacKaay, Ejan (1989), 'L ordre spontanŽ comme fondement du droit - un survol des modles de l'Žmergence des rgles dans la sociŽtŽ civile (Spontaneous Order as the Foundation of Law - A Survey of Models of the Emergence of Rules in Civil Society)', 3 Revue internationale de Droit Economique , 247-287.

MacKaay, Ejan (1995), 'Mededinging, welvaart en federalisme (Competition, Welfare and Federalism)', in Kanning, Walter (ed.), Liber amicorum voor Arnold Heertje , Leiden, Stenfert Kroese, 93-100.

Miller, Geoffrey P. (1993), 'Contracts of Genesis', 22 Journal of Legal Studies , 15-45.

Miller, Geoffrey P. (1993), 'Ritual and Regulation: A Legal Economic Interpretation of Selected Biblical Texts', 22 Journal of Legal Studies , 477-501.

Miller, Geoffrey P. (1994), 'The Legal-Economic Analysis of Comparative Civil Procedure, the Legal-Economic Approach To Biblical Interpretation,', 150 Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics , 755 ff.

Miller, Geoffrey P. (1995), 'Verbal Feud in the Hebrew Bible: Judges 3:12-30 and 19-21,', Journal of Near Eastern Studies .

Miller, Geoffrey P. (1996), 'Ancient Law: the New Learning (tentative title)(1996) Constitutionalist: A Legal-Economic Interpretation of Exodus 17:8-16 and Related Texts,', 70 Chicago-Kent Law Review , 1829 ff. Reprinted in to be republished in James Lindgren, Lauren Geoffrey Miller, eds,.

Miller, Geoffrey P. (1996), 'The Song of Deborah: A Legal-Economic Analysis,', 144 University of Pennsylvania Law Review , 2293 ff.

Miller, Geoffrey P. (1996), 'Foreword: The Development of Ancient Near Eastern Law,', 70 Chicago-Kent Law Review , 1623 ff.

Miller, Geoffrey P. (1996), A Riposte Form In The Song Of Deborah , Manuscript.

Miller, Geoffrey P., Lindgren, James and Laurent Mayali (1995), 'Why Ancient Law?,', 70 Chicago-Kent Law Review , 1465 ff.

Noreau, Pierre (1993), Droit prŽventif - Le droit au-delˆ de la loi (Preventive Law - Law Beyond Legislation) , MontrŽal, ƒditions ThŽmis.

O'Driscoll, Gerald P., Jr. and Rizzo, Mario J. (1986), 'Subjectivism, Uncertainty, and Rules', in Kirzner, Israel M. (ed.), Subjectivism, Intelligibility and Economic Understanding. Essays in Honor of Ludwig M. Lachmann on his Eightieth Birthday , London, MacMillan, 252-267.

Ott, Claus and SchŠfer, Hans-Bernd (1991), Emergence and Construction of Efficient Rules in the Legal System of German Civil Law , Paper Presented at the European Law and Economics Association.

Posner, Eric A. (1996), 'Law, Economics and Inefficient Norms', 145 University of Pennsylvania Law Review , 1697-1744.

Posner, Richard A. (1980), 'A Theory of Primitive Society, with Special Reference to Law', 23 Journal of Law and Economics , 1-25.

Posner, Richard A. (1980), 'A Theory of Primitive Society, with Special Reference to Law', 23 Journal of Law and Economics , 25 ff.

Posner, Richard A. (1981), The Economics of Justice , Cambridge (MA), Harvard University Press, 415 p.

Priest, George L. (1981), 'The New Scientism in Legal Scholars hip: A Comment on Clark and Posner', 90 Yale Law Journal , 1284-1295.

Priest, George L. (1987), 'Measuring Legal Change', 3 Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization , 193-225.

Reese, David A. (1989), 'Does the Common Law Evolve?', 12 Hamline Law Review , 321-353.

Ribstein, Larry E. and Kobayashi, Bruce H. (1995), 'Uniform Laws, Model Laws and Limited Liability Companies', 66 University of Colorado Law Review , 947-999.

Ribstein, Larry E. and Kobayashi, Bruce H. (1996), 'An Economic Analysis of Uniform State Laws', 25 Journal of Legal Studies , 131-199.

Rubin, Paul H., Growing a Legal System, with Special Reference to the Post-Communist Economies' Center for International Reform and the Informal Sector , Working Paper, No. 63.

Rubin, Paul H. (1983), Business Firms and the Common Law. The Evolution of Efficient Rules , New York, Praeger, 189 p.

Rubin, Paul H. (1993), 'Private Mechanisms for the Creation of Efficient Institutions for Market Economies', in Somogyi, Laszlo (ed.), The Political Economy of The Transition Process In Eastern Europe, , Cheltenham, Edward Elgar.

Rubin, Paul H. (1994), 'Growing A Legal System in the Post-Communist Economies', 27 Cornell International Law Journal , 1-47.

Rubin, Paul H. and Tesche, Jean, 'Enforcement of Agreements in Russia," in the Rule of Law and Economic Reform in Russia,', in Sachs, Jeffrey (ed.), Boulder, Westview Press, 912 ff.

Santagata, Walter (1995), ' Istituzioni per il mercato dell'arte: artisti e mercanti tra regole, convenzioni e allocazioni dei diritti (Institutions for the market of works of art: artists and merchants among rules, conventions and allocation of rights)', Economia Pubblica , 87-115.

Shughart, William F., II and Tollison, Robert D. (1985), 'Corporate Chartering: An Exploration in the Economics of Legal Change', 23 Economic Inquiry , 585-599.

Simpson, Alfred William Brian (1979), 'The Horwitz Thesis and the History of Contracts', 46 University of Chicago Law Review , 533-601.

Smith, James Charles (1977), 'Book Review of Morton J. Horwitz the Transformation of American Law (1780-1860)', Wisconsin Law Review , 1253-1276.

Terrebonne, R. Peter (1981), 'A Strictly Evolutionary Model of Common Law', 10 Journal of Legal Studies , 397-407.

Turnbull, Shann (1977), Impact of Mining Royalties on Aboriginal Communities in the Northern Territory , First Report, Parliamentary Paper, Canberra, Australian Government Publishing Service, No. 135/1978, Oct..

Turnbull, Shann (1978), Economic Development of Aboriginal Communities in the Northern Territory Second Report, Self-sufficiency (with Land Rights) , Parliamentary Paper, Canberra, Australian Government Publishing Service, No. 438/1978.

Turnbull, Shann (1980), Economic Development of Aboriginal Communities in the Northern Territory: A Study in two parts, Department of Aboriginal Affairs , Canberra, Australian Government Publishing Service.

Turnbull, Shann (1986), 'When Land Owns People', 43(4) Et cetera: A Review of General Semantics , 389-392.

Versteeg, J. Russell (1989), 'Law and the Security of Homeric Society (A Response to Richard A. Posner)', 10 Journal of Legal History , 265-284.

Voigt, Stefan (1993), 'On the Internal Consistency of Hayek's Evolutionary oriented Constitutional Economics - Some General Remarks', 3 Journal des Economistes et des Etudes Humaines , 461-476.

Warren, Elizabeth (1981), 'Trade Usage and Parties in the Trade: An Economic Rationale for an Inflexible Rule', 42 University of Pittsburgh Law Review , 515 ff.

Williams, Stephen F. (1980), 'The Static Conception of the Common Law: A Comment', 9 Journal of Legal Studies , 277-289.