Encyclopedia of Law & Economics - 8300 The Economics of Prisons

Adler, Jacob (1991), The Urgings of Conscience: A theory of Punishment , Philadelphia (PA), Temple University Press.

Akerlof, George A. and Yellen, Janet L. (1994), 'Gang Behavior, Law Enforcement, and Community Values', in Aaron, Henry J., Mann, Thomas E. and Taylor, Timothy (eds.), Values and Public Policy , Washington, Brookings Institution, 173-209.

Andrews, Marcellus (1993), 'Schools, Jails and the Dynamics of an Educational Underclass: Some Dreadful Social Arithmetic', 22 Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization , 121-132.

Avio, Kenneth L. (1973), 'An Economic Analysis of Criminal Corrections: The Canadian Case', 6 Canadian Journal of Economics , 164-178.

Avio, Kenneth L. (1975), 'Recidivism in the Economic Model of Crime', 13 Economic Inquiry , 450-456.

Avio, Kenneth L. (1991), 'On Private Prisons: An Economic Analysis of the Model Contract and Model Statute for Private Incarceration', 17 New England Journal on Criminal and Civil Confinement , 265-300.

Avio, Kenneth L. (1993), 'Remuneration Regimes for Private Prisons', 13 International Review of Law and Economics , 35-45.

Avio, Kenneth L. (1993), 'Economic, Retributive and Contractarian Conceptions of Punishment', 12 Law and Philosophy , 249-286.

Avio, Kenneth L. (1995), 'Economic, Contractarian and Discourse Arguments against Efficient Torture', in Peczenik, Aleksander and Karlsson, Mikael M. (eds.), Archives on Rights and Social Philosophy 58, 'Law, Justice and the State:I' , Stuttgart, Franz Steiner, 265-272.

Barnes, Harry Elmer (1921), 'The Economics of American Penology as Illustrated by the Experience of the State of Pennsylvania', 8 Journal of Political Economy , 617-642.

Barnett, Randy E. (1993), The Function of Restitutive Justice, Law and Economics Workshop Series Paper, 9 , Toronto, Faculty of Law, University of Toronto.

Becker, Gary S. (1968), 'Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach', 76 Journal of Political Economy , 169-217.

Becker, Gary S. (1996), 'Norms and the Formation of Preferences', in Becker, Gary S. (ed.), Accounting for Tastes , Cambridge (MA), Harvard University Press, 225-230.

Benson, Bruce L (1990), The Enterprise of Law: Justice Without the State , San Francisco, Pacific Research Institute for Public Policy.

Benson, Bruce L. (1991), Lack of Cooperation in Law Enforcement: Public Good Free Riding or Common Pool Under-Investment? , Department of Economics Working Paper, Tallahassee (FL), Florida State University, No. 91-03-9.

Benson, Bruce L. (1992), 'The Development of Criminal Law and Its Enforcement: Public Interest or Political Transfers', 3 Journal des Economistes et des Etudes Humaines , 79-108.

Benson, Bruce L. (1994), 'Third Thoughts on Contracting Out', 11 Journal of Libertarian Studies , 44-78.

Benson, Bruce L. (1995), 'Appendix (Oakland, Independent Institute)', in Brakel, Samuel Jan (ed.), Prisons and Corrections , Independent Policy Report.

Benson, Bruce L. (1995), Privatization in Criminal Justice , Independent Policy Report, Oakland, Independent Institute.

Benson, Bruce L. and Rasmussen, David W. (1992), Illinois' War on Drugs: Some Unintended Consequences , Heartland Policy Study, Chicago, Heartland Institute, No. 48.

Benson, Bruce L. and Rasmussen, David W. (1995), Illicit Drugs and Crime , Independent Policy Report, Oakland, Independent Institute.

Benson, Bruce L. and Rasmussen, David W. (1995), 'Crime and Punishment', in Denslow, David A., Scoggins, J.F. and Shermyen, Anne (eds.), The Economy of Florida , Gainesville (FL), Bureau of Economic and Business Research, 99-116.

Benson, Bruce L. and Wollan, Laurin A., Jr. (1989), 'Prison Overcrowding and Judicial Incentives', 3 Madison Paper Series , 1-22.

Benson, Bruce L., Kim, Iljoong, Rasmussen, David W. and Zuehlke, Thomas W. (1993), 'An Economic Analysis of Recidivism Among Drug Offenders', 60 Southern Economic Journal , 169-183.

Block, Michael K. and Lind, Robert C. (1975), 'An Economic Analysis of Crimes Punishable by Imprisonment', 4 Journal of Legal Studies , 479-492.

Block, Michael K. and Ulen, Thomas S. (1979), 'Cost Functions for Correctional Institutions', in Gray, Charles M. (ed.), The Costs of Crime , Beverly Hills (CA), Sage Publications, 187-209.

Blumstein, Alfred and Larson, Richard (1969), 'Models of a Total Criminal Justice System', 17 Operations Research , 199-232.

Borus, Michael E., Hardin, Einar and Terry, Patterson A. (1976), 'Job-Placement Services for Ex-Offenders: An Evaluation of the Michigan Comprehensive Offender Manpower Program (COMP) Job-Placement Efforts', 11 Journal of Human Resources , 391-401.

Brakel, Samuel J. (1988), 'Privatization' in Corrections: Radical Prison Chic or Mainstream Americana?', 14 New England Journal on Criminal and Civil Confinement , 1-39.

Brown, Jennifer G. (1992), 'Posner, Prisoners, and Pragmatism', 66 Tulane Law Review , 1117-1178.

Burnovski, Moshe and Safra, Zvi (1994), 'Deterrence Effects of Sequential Punishment Policies: Should Repeat Offenders Be More Severely Punished?', 14 International Review of Law and Economics , 341-350.

Cameron, Samuel (1989), 'Determinants of the Prison Population: An Empirical Analysis', 16(8) International Journal of Social Economics , 17-25.

Campbell, John (1994), 'Policing Crime', 4 Federal Reserve Bank of Boston Regional Review , 6-11.

Carr-Hill, G.A. and Carr-Hill, R.A. (1972), 'Reconviction as a Process'', 12 British Journal of Criminology , 35-43.

Conley, John A. (1981), 'Revising Conceptions about the Origin of Prisons: The Importance of Economic Considerations', 62 Social Science Quarterly , 247-258.

Cook, Philip J. (1975), 'The Correctional Carrot: Better Jobs for Parolees', 1 Policy Analysis , 11-54.

Cook, Philip J. (1977), 'Punishment and Crime: A Critique of Current Findings Concerning the Preventative Effects of Punishment', 41(1) Law and Contemporary Problems , 164-209.

Couch, Kenneth A. (1992), 'New Evidence on the Long-Term Effects on Employment Training Programs', 10 Journal of Labor Economics , 380-388.

Cragg, Wesley (1992), The Practice of Punishment: Towards a Theory of Restorative Justice , London, Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Dau-Schmidt, Kenneth G. (1990), 'An Economic Analysis of the Criminal Law as a Preference Shaping Policy', Duke Law Journal , 1-38.

Diiulio, John J., Jr. (1994), 'The Question of Black Crime', 117 Public Interest , 3-32.

Diiulio, John J., Jr. (1996), 'Help Wanted: Economists, Crime and Public Policy', 10 Journal of Economic Perspectives , 3-24.

Diiulio, John J., Jr. and Piehl, Anne Morrison (1991), 'Does Prison Pay?', 9 Brookings Review , 28-35.

Duff, R.A. (1986), Trials and Punishment , Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Duff, R.A. (1996), 'Penal Communications: Recent Work in the Philosophy of Punishment', 20 Crime and Justice: A Review of Research , 1-97.

Ehrlich, Isaac (1972), 'Participation in Illegitimate Activities: A Theoretical and Empirical Investigation', 80 Journal of Political Economy , 521-565.

Ehrlich, Isaac (1981), 'On the Usefulness of Controlling Individuals: An Economic Analysis of Rehabilitation, Incapacitation and Deterrence', 71 American Economic Review , 307-332.

Ehrlich, Isaac (1982), 'The Optimum Enforcement of Laws and the Concept of Justice: A Positive Analysis', 2 International Review of Law and Economics , 3-27.

Englander, Frederick (1983), 'Helping Ex-offenders enter the Labor Market', 106 Monthly Labor Review , 25-30.

Englander, Frederick (1985), 'Reply', 108A Monthly Labor Review , 49-50.

Evans, Robert, Jr. (1968), 'The Labor Market and Parole Success', 3 Journal of Human Resources , 201-212.

Farrington, David P., Ohlin, Lloyd E. and Wilson, James Q. (1986), Understanding and Controlling Crime: Toward a New Research Strategy , New York, Springer.

Freeman, Richard B. (1983), 'Crime and Unemployment', in Wilson, James Q. (ed.), Crime and Public Policy , San Francisco, Institute for Contemporary Studies Press, 89-106.

Freeman, Richard B. (1986), 'Who Escapes? the Relation Between Churchgoing and Other Background Factors to the Socioeconomic Performance of Black Male Youths from Inner-City Tracts', in Freeman, Richard B. and Holzer, Harry J. (eds.), The Black Youth Employment Crisis , Chicago (IL), University of Chicago Press, 353-376.

Freeman, Richard B. (1992), 'Crime and the Employment of Disadvantaged Youths', in Peterson, George E. and Vronman, Wayne (eds.), Urban Labor Markets and Job Opportunity , Washington, Urban Institute Press, 201-237.

Freeman, Richard B. (1995), 'Crime and the Job Market', in Wilson, James Q. and Petersilia, Joan (eds.), Crime , San Fransisco, Institute for Contemporary Studies.

Freeman, Richard B. (1996), 'Why Do So Many Young American Men Commit Crimes and What Might We Do About It?', 10 Journal of Economic Perspectives , 25-42.

Friedman, Lawrence M. (1993), Crime and Punishment in American History , New York, Basic Books.

Funke, G.S. (1985), 'The Economics of Prison Crowding', 478 Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science , 86-99.

Garoupa, Nuno (1996), Prison, Parole and the Criminal Justice Act 1991 , Manuscript, University of York, U.K..

Gendreau, Paul and Ross, Robert R. (1987), 'Revivification of Rehabilitation: Evidence from the 1980s', 4 Justice Quarterly , 349-407.

Gentry, James Theodore (1986), 'The Panopticon Revisited: The Problem of Monitoring Private Prisons', 96 Yale Law Journal , 353-375.

Giertz, J. Fred and Nardulli, Peter F. (1985), 'Prison Overcrowding', 46(1) Public Choice , 71-78.

Gill, Richard T. (1994), 'The Importance of Deterrence', 117 Public Interest , 51-56.

Gillespie, Robert F. (1983), 'Allocating Prison Space: An Economic Approach Incorporating Efficiency and Equity', 40 Illinois Business Review , 3-11.

Grizzle, Gloria A. and Witte, Ann Dryden (1980), 'Criminal Justice Evaluation Techniques: Methods Other Than Random Assignment', in Kleenin, Malcolm W. and Teilmann, Katherine S. (eds.), Handbook of Criminal Justice Evaluation , Beverly Hills (CA), Sage Publications, 259-302.

Halleck, Seymour L. and Witte, Ann Dryden (1977), 'Is Rehabilitation Dead?', 23 Crime and Delinquency , 372-382.

Hardin, Einar (1975), 'Human Capital and the Labor Market Success of New Parolees', in X (ed.), 1975 Proceedings of the Business and Economics Section , American Statistical Association, 330-335.

Herrnstein, Richard J. (1983), 'Some Criminogenic Traits in Offenders', in Wilson, James Q. (ed.), Crime and Public Policy , San Francisco, Institute for Contemporary Studies Press, 31-49.

Hersch, Philip L. and Netter, Jeffrey M. (1984), 'The Effects of Crime Rates on Time Served in Prison: An Empirical Analysis', 39 Public Finance , 314-320.

Hollister, Robinson G., Kemper, Peter and Maynard, Rebecca A. (1984), The National Supported Work Demonstration , Madison, University of Wisconsin.

Kan, Steven S. (1996), 'Corporal Punishments and Optimal Incapacitation', 15 Journal of Legal Studies , 121-130.

Kim, Il Joong and others (1993), 'An Economic Analysis of Recidivism among Drug Offenders', 60(1) Southern Economic Journal , 169-183.

Langan, Patrick A. (1994), 'No Racism in the Justice System', 117 Public Interest , 48-51.

Langbein, John H. (1976), 'The Historical Origins of the Sanction of Imprisonment for Serious Crime', 5 Journal of Legal Studies , 35-60.

Langbein, John H. (1977), Torture and the Law of Proof: Europe and England in the ancient Regime , Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

Lattimore, Pamela K. and Witte, Ann Dryden (1985), 'Programs to aid Ex-offenders: We don't know 'Nothing Works', 108A Monthly Labor Review , 46-50.

Lattimore, Pamela K., Witte, Ann Dryden and Baker, Joanna R. (1990), 'Experimental Assessment of the Effect of Vocational Training on Youthful Property Offenders', 14 Evaluation Review , 115-133.

Lee, Tahirih V. and Searle-White, Joshua (1991), 'Prisoner's Dilemma Meets Glasnost: A Comparative Advantage Solution to the United States Prison Crisis', 24 Cornell International Law Journal , 25-56.

Leung, Siu Fai (1995), 'Dynamic Deterrence Theory', 62 Economica , 65-87.

Levitt, Steven D. (1996), 'The Effect of Prison Population Size on Crime Rates: Evidence From Prison Overcrowding Litigation', 107 Quarterly Journal of Economics , 319-351.

Lewis, Donald E. (1979), 'The Optimal Parole Period', 2 Economics Letters , 381-386.

Lewis, Donald E. (1983), 'Economic Aspects of the Parole Decision', 22 Australian Economic Papers , 259-279.

Lewis, Frank D. (1960), 'Australia: An Economical Prison? A Reply', 43 Economic History Review, Second Series , 477-482.

Lewis, Frank D. (1988), 'The Cost of Convict Transportation from Britain to Australia, 1796-1810', 41 Economic History Review, Second Series , 507-524.

Lipton, Douglas W., Martinson, Robert and Wilks, Judith (1975), The Effectiveness of Correctional Treatment: A Survey of Treatment Evaluation Studies , New York, Praeger.

Logan, Charles H. (1987), 'The Propriety of Proprietary Prisons', 51 Feceral Probation , 35-40.

Long, Sharon K. and Witte, Ann Dryden (1981), 'Current Economic Trends: Implications for Crime and Criminal Justice', in Wright, Kevin N. (ed.), Crime and Criminal Justice in a Declining Economy, Cambridge (MA) , Oelgeschlager, Gunn and Hain, 69-143.

Mair, George (1991), 'What works -- Nothing or Everything? Measuring the Effectiveness of Sentences', 30 Home Office Research Bulletin , 3-8.

Mallar, Charles D. and Thornton, Craig V.D. (1977), 'Transitional Aid for Released Prisoners: Evidence from the LIFE Experiment', 13 Journal of Human Resources , 208-236.

Marks, Denton and Vining, Aidan R. (1986), 'Prison Labor Markets: The Supply Issue', 19(1) Policy Sciences , 83-111.

Martin, Susan E., Sechrest, Lee B. and Redner, Robin (eds.), New Directions in the Rehabilitation of Criminal Offenders , Washington, National Academy Press.

Martinson, Robert (1974), '"What Works" -- Questions and Answers about Prison Reform', 25 Public Interest , 22-54.

Marvel, Thomas and Moody, Carlisle (1994), 'Prison Population Growth and Crime Reduction', 10 Journal of Quantitative Criminology , 109-140.

McGuire, William J. and Witte, Ann Dryden (1978), An Estimate of an Average Cost Curve for Large Scale Correctional Institutions , Working Paper, Department of Economics, University of North Carolina.

Melossi, Dario (1987), 'Political Business Cycles and Imprisonment Rates in Italy: Report on a Work in Progress', 16(1-2) Review of Black Political Economy , 211-218.

Miceli, Thomas J. (1991), 'Optimal Criminal Procedure: Fairness and Deterrence', 11 International Review of Law and Economics , 3-10.

Miceli, Thomas J. (1994), 'Prison and Parole: Minimizing the Cost of Non monetary Sanctions as Deterrents', 16 Research in Law and Economics , 197-211.

Moffitt, Terrie E. (1994), 'Natural Histories of Delinquency', in Weitekamp, Elmar G. and Kerner, Hans-JŸrgen (eds.), Cross-National Longitudinal Research on Human Development and Criminal Behavior , Dordrecht, Kluwer, 3-61.

Morris, Norval (1974), The Future of Imprisonment , Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 144 p.

Muller, Jerry Z. (1993), Adam Smith in his Time and Ours: Resigning the Decent Society , New York, Free Press.

Myers, Samuel L., Jr. (1980), 'The Rehabilitation Effect of Punishment', 18 Economic Inquiry , 353-366.

Myers, Samuel L., Jr. (1980), 'Black-White Differentials in Crime Rates', 10 Review of Black Political Economy , 133-152.

Myers, Samuel L., Jr. (1983), 'Estimating the Economic Model of Crime: Employment versus Punishment Effects', 94 Quarterly Journal of Economics , 157-166.

Nardulli, Peter F. (1984), 'The Misalignment of Penal Responsibilities and State Prison Crises: Costs, Consequences, and Corrective Actions', University of Illinois Law Review , 365-387.

Nash, John F. (1991), 'To Make the Punishment Fit the Crime: The Theory and Statistical Estimation of a Multi-Period Optimal Deterrence Model', 11 International Review of Law and Economics , 101-110.

Nicholas, Stephen (1990), 'Australia: An Economical Prison? Comments', 43(3) Economic History Review, Second Series , 470-476.

Niskanen, William A. (1971), Bureaucracy and Representative Government , Chicago, Aldine-Atherton.

Parker, Jeffrey S. (1989), 'Criminal Sentencing Policy for Organizations: The Unifying Approach of Optimal Penalties', 26 American Criminal Law Review , 513-604.

Parker, Jeffrey S. and Block, Michael K. (1989), 'The Sentencing Commission, P.M. (Post-Mistretta). Sunshine or Sunset?', 27 American Criminal Law Review , 289-329.

Pastor, Santos (1994), 'La exigibilidad de las normas y la resoluci—n de conflictos (Law Enforcement and Dispute Resolution)', 3 Iuris: Quaderns de Pol’tica Jur’dica , 155-174.

Peterson, Andrew A. (1981), 'Deterring Strikes by Public Employees: New York's Two for One Salary Penalty and the 1979 Prison Guard Strike', 34(4) Industrial and Labor Relations Review , 545-562.

Piehl, Anne Morrison and Diiulio, John J., Jr. (1995), 'Does Prison Pay? Revisited', 13 Brookings Review , 21-25.

Piliavin, Irving and Gartner, Rosemary (1984), 'The Impacts of Supported Work on Ex-offenders', in Hollister, Robinson G. Jr., Kemper, Peter and Maynard, Rebecca A. (eds.), The National Supported Work Demonstration , Madison, University of Wisconsin.

Polinsky, A. Mitchell and Rubinfeld, Daniel L. (1991), 'A Model of Optimal Fines for Repeat Offenders', 46(3) Journal of Public Economics , 291-306.

Polinsky, A. Mitchell and Shavell Steven (1999), 'On the Disutility and Discounting of Imprisonment and the Theory of Deterrence', Journal of Legal Studies .

Polinsky, A. Mitchell and Shavell, Steven (1984), 'The Optimal Use of Fines and Imprisonment', 24 Journal of Public Economics , 89-99.

Rasmussen, David W. and Benson, Bruce L. (eds.) (1994), The Economic Anatomy of a Drug War: Criminal Justice in the Commons , Lanham (MD), Rowman and Littlefield..

Robbins, Ira R. (1989), 'The Legal Dimensions of Private Incarceration', 38 American University Law Review , 531-854.

Robinson, Paul H. (1994), 'A Failure of Moral Courage', 117 Public Interest , 40-48.

Roper, Brian A. (1986), 'Market Forces, Privatisation and Prisons: A Polar Case for Government Policy', 13 International Journal of Social Economics , 77-92.

Rossi, Peter H., Berk, Richard A. and Lenihan, Kenneth J. (1980), Money, Work, and Crime: Experimental Evidence , New York, Academic Press.

Rubenstein, Ariel (1980), 'On an Anomaly of the Deterrent Effect of Punishment', 6 Economics Letters , 89-94.

Schmidt, Peter and Witte, Ann Dryden (1979), 'Models of Recidivism and an Illustration of Their Use in Evaluating Correctional Programs', in Sechrest, Lee, White, Susan D. and Brown, Elizabeth D. (eds.), The Rehabilitation of Criminal Offenders: Problems and Prospects , Washington, National Academy of Sciences, 210-224.

Schmidt, Peter and Witte, Ann Dryden (1980), 'Evaluating Correctional Programs: Models of Criminal Recidivism and an Illustration of Their Use', 4 Evaluation Review , 585-600.

Schmidt, Peter and Witte, Ann Dryden (1984), An Economic Analysis of Crime and Justice: Theory, Methods, and Applications , New York, Academic Press, 416 p.

Schmidt, Peter and Witte, Ann Dryden (1988), Predicting Criminal Recidivism Using Survival Models , New York, Springer.

Schmidt, Peter and Witte, Ann Dryden (1989), 'Predicting Criminal Recidivism Using 'Split Population' Survival Time Models', 40 Journal of Econometrics , 141-159.

Sellers, Martin P. (1993), The History and Politics of Private Prisons: A Comparative Analysis , Rutherford (NJ), Fairleigh Dickinson University Press.

Shavell, Steven (1985), 'Criminal Law and the Optimal Use of Nonmonetary Sanctions as a Deterrent', 85 Columbia Law Review , 1232-1262.

Shavell, Steven (1987), 'A Model of Optimal Incapacitation', 77 American Economic Review , 107-110.

Shavell, Steven (1987), 'The Optimal Use of Nonmonetary Sanctions as a Deterrent', 77 American Economic Review , 584-592.

Shoup, Carl S. (1964), 'Standards for Distributing a Free Govermental Service: Crime Prevention', 19 Public Finance , 383-392.

Sickles, Robin C., Schmidt, Peter and Witte, Ann Dryden (1979), 'An Application of the Simultaneous Tobit Model: A Study of the Determinants of Criminal Recidivism', 31 Journal of Economics and Business , 166-171.

Smith, Adam (1971), 'The Theory of Moral Sentiments', in Raphael, D.D. and MacFie, A.L. (eds.), Volume I of The Glasgow Edition of the Works and Correspondence of Adam Smith , Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Staudohar, Paul D. (1976), 'Prison Guard Labor Relations in Ohio', 15(2) Industrial Relations , 177-190.

Stigler, George J. (1970), 'The Optimum Enforcement of Law', 78 Journal of Political Economy , 526-536.

Tabasz, Thomas F. (1974), 'Penology, Economics, and the Public: Toward an Agreement', 5 Policy Sciences , 47-55.

Tabasz, Thomas F. (1975), Toward an Economics of Prisons , Lexington (KY), Heath.

Tauchen, Helen V., Witte, Ann Dryden and Griesinger, Harriet (1994), 'Criminal Deterrence: Revisiting the Issue With a Birth Cohort', 76 Review of Economics and Statistics , 399-412.

Thurman, Quint C. (1988), 'Taxpayer Noncompliance and Attribution Theory: An Experimental Vignette Approach', 43(1) Public Finance , 147-156.

Thurow, L. (1970), 'Equity vs. Efficiency in Law Enforcement', 18 Public Policy , 451-459.

Trumbull, William N. and Witte, Ann Dryden (1981), 'Determinants of the Costs of Operating Large-Scale Prisons with Implications for the Cost of Correctional Standards', 16 Law and Society Review , 115-146.

Viscusi, W. Kip (1986), 'The Risks and Rewards of Criminal Activity: A Comprehensive Test of Criminal Deterrence', 4 Journal of Labor Economics , 317-340.

Visher, Christy A., Lattimore, Pamela K. and Linster, Richard L. (1991), 'Predicting the Recidivism of Serious Youthful Offenders Using Survival Models', 29 Criminology , 329-366.

Waldfogel, Joel (1994), 'The Effect of Criminal Conviction on Income and the Trust "Reposed in the Workmen."', 29(1) Journal of Human Resources , 62-81.

Waldfogel, Joel (1995), 'Are Fines and Prison Terms Used Efficiently? Evidence on Federal Fraud Offenders', 38 Journal of Law and Economics , 107-139.

Weitekamp, Elmar G.M. and Kerner, Hans-JŸrgen (1994), Cross-National Longitudinal Research on Human Development and Criminal Behavior , Dordrecht, Kluwer.

Werden, Gregory J. and Simon, Marilyn J. (1987), 'Why Price Fixers Should Go to Prison', 32(4) Antitrust Bulletin , 917-937.

Williamson, Oliver E. (1994), The Economics of Discretionary Behavior: Managerial Objectives in a Theory of the Firm , Englewood Cliffs (NJ), Prentice-Hall.

Wilson, James Q. (1983), Thinking About Crime , New York, Basic Books.

Wilson, James Q. (1993), The Moral Sense , New York, Free Press.

Wilson, James Q. (1994), 'Culture, Incentives, and the Underclass', in Aaron, Henry J., Mann, Thomas E. and Taylor, Timothy (eds.), Values and Public Policy , Washington, Brookings Institution, 54-80.

Wilson, James Q. and Herrnstein, Richard J. (1985), Crime and Human Nature , New York, Simon and Schuster.

Witte, Ann Dryden (1977), 'Work Release in North Carolina -- A Program That Works!', 41 Law and Contemporary Problems , 230-251.

Witte, Ann Dryden (1993), 'Some Thoughts on the Future of Research in Crime and Delinquency', 30 Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency , 513-525.

Witte, Ann Dryden (1995), Crime and Education , Wellesley College Working Paper, Wellesley (MA), Department of Economics, Wellesley College.

Witte, Ann Dryden (1995), Urban Crime: Issues and Policies , Wellesley College Working Paper, Wellesley (MA), Department of Economics, Wellesley College.

Witte, Ann Dryden and Reid, Pamela A. (1980), 'An Exploration of the Determinants of Labor Market Performance for Prison Releasees', 8(3) Journal of Urban Economics , 313-329.

Witte, Ann Dryden and Schmidt, Peter (1977), 'An Analysis of Recidivism, using the Truncated Lognormal Distribution', 26 Journal of the Royal Statistical Society , 302-311.

Witte, Ann Dryden and Schmidt, Peter (1979), 'An Analysis of the Type of Criminal Activity Using the Logit Model', 16 Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency , 164-179.

Zimmer, Lynn and Jacobs, James B. (1981), 'Challenging the Taylor Law: Prison Guards on Strike', 34(4) Industrial and Labor Relations Review , 531-544.