Encyclopedia of Law & Economics - 8100 Economics of Criminal Behavior (incl. Compliance)

Aasness, JŸrgen, Eide, Erling and Skjerpen, Terje (1992), A Criminometric Study Using Panel Data and Latent Variables , Central Bureau of Statistics, Discussion Paper, No. 74.

Aasness, JŸrgen, Eide, Erling and Skjerpen, Terje (1993), 'Criminometrics, Latent Variables, and Panel Data', in Haagen, K., Bartholomew, D.J. and Deistler, M. (eds.), Statistical Modelling and latent variables , Amsterdam, North-Holland, 1-16.

Aasness, JŸrgen, Eide, Erling and Skjerpen, Terje (1994), Criminometrics, Latent Variables, Panel Data, and Different Types of Crime , Statistics Norway, Discussion Paper, No. 124.

Adams, Michael (1992), 'Drugs Supply', 20(8) Garda Review , 14-15. Reprinted in 1 The Police Journal, 1993, p. 42-47.

Adams, Michael (1992), 'Den Teufel mit Belzebub austreiben - Wie man den Markt fŸr Rauschgifte zerstšrt', 12 Kriminalistik, Zeitschrift fŸr die gesamte kriminalistische Wissenschaft und Praxis , 757-761.

Adams, Michael (1993), 'Drug Enforcement in Germany and Abroad - A New Way To Destroy the Market for Drugs', 17(1) International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice , 203-210.

Adams, Michael and Shavell, Steven (1990), 'Zur Strafbarkeit des Versuchs', Goltdammer's Archiv fŸr Strafrecht , 337-386.

Adelstein, Richard P. (1978), 'The Plea Bargain in Theory: A Behavioral Model of the Negotiated Guilty Plea', 44 Southern Economic Journal , 488-503.

Adelstein, Richard P. (1978), 'The Negotiated Guilty Plea: A Framework for Analysis', 53 New York University Law Review , 783-833.

Adelstein, Richard P. (1979), 'The Moral Costs of Crime: Prices, Information and Organization', in Gray, Charles M. (ed.), The Costs of Crime , Beverly Hills (CA), Sage Publications, 233-252.

Ahamad, B. (1967), 'An Analysis of Crimes by the Method of Principal Components', 16 Applied Statistics , 17-35.

Allingham, Michael G. and Sandmo, Agnar (1972), 'Income Tax Evasion: A Theoretical Analysis', 1 Journal of Public Economics , 323-338.

Allison, John P. (1972), 'Economic Factors and the Rate of Crime', 48 Land Economics , 193-196.

Anden¾s, Johannes (1975), 'General Prevention Revisited: Research and Policy Implications', 66 Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology , 338-365.

Anderson, A. B., Harris, A. R. and Miller, J. (1983), 'Models of Deterrence Theory', 12 Social Science Research , 236-262.

Anderson, R. W . (1976), The Economics of Crime , London, MacMillan, 71 p.

Andreano, Ralph and Siegfried, John J. (eds.) (1980), The Economics of Crime , Cambridge, Schenkman, 426 p.

Andreoni, James (1995), 'Criminal Deterrence in the Reduced Form: A New Perspective on Ehrlich's Seminal Study', 33 Economic Inquiry , 476-483.

Antunes, George and Hunt, A. Lee (1973), 'The Deterrent Impact of Criminal Sanctions: Some Implications for Criminal Justice Policy', 51 Journal of Urban Law , 145-161.

Antunes, George and Hunt, A. Lee (1973), 'The Impact of Certainty and Severity of Punishment on Levels of Crime in American States : An Extended Analysis', 64 Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology , 486-493.

Asch, Peter and Levy, David T. (1987), 'The Drinking Age and Traffic Safety', 11(2) Regulation , 48-52.

Asch, Peter and Levy, David T. (1987), 'Does the Minimum Drinking Age Affect Traffic Fatalities?', 6 Journal of Policy Analysis and Management , 180-192.

Athens, Lonnie H. (1980), Violent Criminal Acts and Actors: A Symbolic Interactionist Study , Boston, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 104 p.

Avio, Kenneth L. (1973), 'An Economic Analysis of Criminal Corrections: The Canadian Case', 6 Canadian Journal of Economics , 164-178.

Avio, Kenneth L. (1975), 'Recidivism in the Economic Model of Crime', 13 Economic Inquiry , 450-456.

Avio, Kenneth L. (1979), 'Capital Punishment in Canada: A Time-Series Analysis of the Deterrent Hypothesis', 12 Canadian Journal of Economics , 647-676.

Avio, Kenneth L. and Clark, C. Scott (1976), Property Crime in Canada: An Econometric Study , Toronto, University of Toronto Press.

Avio, Kenneth L. and Clark, C. Scott (1978), 'The Supply of Property Offences in Canada: Evidence on the Deterrent Effect of Punishment', 11 Canadian Journal of Economics , 1-19.

Badford, R. S. (1989), 'Going to the Island: A Legal and Economic Analysis of the Medieval Icelandic Duel', 67 Southern California Law Review , 615-644.

Bailey, William C. (1978), 'The Deterrent Effect of Arrest and Conviction on Crime Rates in Indian States and Territories', 17 Annales Internationales de Criminologie , 21-50.

Baldry, Jonathan C. (1974), 'Positive Economic Analysis of Criminal Behaviour', in Ceujler, A.J. (ed.), Economic Policies and Social Goals , London, Martin Robertson.

Baldry, Jonathan C. (1980), 'Crimes Punishable by Imprisonment: A Note', 9 Journal of Legal Studies , 617-619.

Baldus, D. and Cole, J.W. (1975), 'A Comparison of the Work of Torsten Sellin and Isach Ehrlich on the Deterrent Effect of Capital Punishment', 85 Yale Law Journal , 170-186.

Balkin, Steven and McDonald, John F. (1981), 'The Market for Street Crime: An economic Analysis of Victim-Offender Interaction', 10 Journal of Urban Economics , 390-405.

Barnett, Arnold (1978), 'Crime and Capital Punishment: Some Recent Studies', 6 Journal of Criminal Justice , 291-303.

Barnett, Harold C. (1976), 'The Economics of Crime - A Comment', 34 Review of Social Economy , 81-87.

Barnett, Randy E. and Hagel, John III (1977), Assessing the Criminal. Restitution, Retribution, and the Legal Process , Cambridge (MA), Ballinger, 403 p.

Bartel, Ann P. (1975), 'An Analysis of Firm Demand for Protection Against Crime', 4 Journal of Legal Studies , 443-478.

Bartel, Ann P. (1979), 'Women and Crime: An Economic Analysis', 17 Economic Inquiry , 29-51.

Barthold, Thomas A. and Hochman, Harold M. (1988), 'Addiction as Extreme Seeking', 26 Economic Inquiry , 89-106.

Beccaria, Cesare (1971), 'On crime and punishment (1764)', in Grupp, S.E. (ed.), Theories of Punishment , Bloomington (IN), Indiana University Press, 117-137.

Beccaria-Bonesara, C. (1958), An Essay on Crime and Punishment , New York, Oceana Publications.

Becker, Gary S. (1962), 'Irrational Behavior and Economic Theory', 70 Journal of Political Economy , 1-13.

Becker, Gary S. (1968), 'Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach', 76 Journal of Political Economy , 169-217.

Becker, Gary S. and Landes, William M. (eds.) (1974), Essays in the Economics of Crime and Punishment , New York, Columbia University Press, 268 p.

Becker, Gary S. and Stigler, George J. (1974), 'Law Enforcement, Malfeasance, and Compensation of Enforcers', 3 Journal of Legal Studies , 1-18.

Ben-Shahar, Omri and Harel, Alon (1996), 'The Economics of the Law of Criminal Attempts: a Victim-Centered Perspective', 145(1) University of Pennsylvania Law Review , 299-351.

Benson, Bruce L. (1981), 'A Note on Corruption of Public Officials: The Black Market for Property Rights', 5 Journal of Libertarian Studies , 305-311.

Benson, Bruce L. (1984), 'Guns for Protection and Other Private Sector Responses to the Fear of Violent Crime', in Kates, Don, Jr. (ed.), Firearms and Violence: Issues of Regulation , Cambridge (MA), Ballinger, 329-356.

Benson, Bruce L. (1986), 'Guns for Protection and Other Private Sector Responses to Government's Failure to Control Increasing Violent Crime', 8 Journal of Libertarian Studies , 75-109.

Benson, Bruce L. and Baden, John A. (1985), 'The Political Economy of Government Corruption: The Logic of Underground Government', 14 Journal of Legal Studies , 391-410.

Benson, Bruce L. and Rasmussen, David W. (1991), 'The Relationship Between Illicit Drug Enforcement Policy and Property Crimes', 9 Contemporary Policy Issues , 106-115.

Benson, Bruce L. and Rasmussen, David W. (1992), Illinois' War on Drugs: Some Unintended Consequences , Heartland Policy Study, Chicago, Heartland Institute, No. 48.

Benson, Bruce L. and Rasmussen, David W. (1995), 'Crime and Punishment', in Denslow, David A., Scoggins, J.F. and Shermyen, Anne (eds.), The Economy of Florida , Gainesville (FL), Bureau of Economic and Business Research, 99-116.

Benson, Bruce L. and Rasmussen, David W. (1995), Illicit Drugs and Crime , Independent Policy Report, Oakland, Independent Institute.

Benson, Bruce L., Kim, Iljoong and Rasmussen, David W. (1994), 'Estimating Deterrence Effects: A Public Choice Prospective on the Economics of Crime Literature', 61 Southern Economic Journal , 161-168.

Benson, Bruce L., Kim, Iljoong, Rasmussen, David W. and Zuehlke, Thomas W. (1992), 'Is Property Crime Caused by Drug Use or Drug Enforcement Policy?', 24 Applied Economics , 679-692.

Benson, Bruce L., Kim, Iljoong, Rasmussen, David W. and Zuehlke, Thomas W. (1993), 'An Economic Analysis of Recidivism Among Drug Offenders', 60 Southern Economic Journal , 169-183.

Bentham, Jeremy (1843), 'Principles of Penal Law', 1 Works , 399 ff.

Beron, Kurt J. (1988), 'Applying the Economic Model of Crime to Child Support Enforcement: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis', 70 Review of Economics and Statistics , 382-390.

Beyleveld, Deryck (1980), A Bibliography on General Deterrence Research , Westmead, Saxon House.

Block, Michael K. and Gerety, Vernon E. (1995), 'Some Experimental Evidence on Differences between Student and Prisoner Reactions to Monetary Penalties and Risk', 24 Journal of Legal Studies , 123-138.

Block, Michael K. and Heineke, J.M. (1975), 'A Labor Theoretic Analysis of the Criminal Choice', 4 Journal of Legal Studies , 314-325.

Block, Michael K. and Heineke, J.M. (1975), 'Factor Allocation under Uncertainty: An Extension', 41 Southern Economic Journal , 526-530.

Block, Michael K. and Lind, Robert C. (1975), 'An Economic Analysis of Crimes Punishable by Imprisonment', 4 Journal of Legal Studies , 479-492.

Block, Michael K. and Lind, Robert C. (1975), 'Crime and Punishment Reconsidered', 4 Journal of Legal Studies , 241-247.

Blumstein, Alfred and Nagin, Daniel S. (1977), 'The Deterrent Effect of Legal Sanctions on Draft Evasion', 29 Stanford Law Review , 241-276.

Blumstein, J. and others (eds.) (1978), Deterrence and Incapacitation: Estimating the Effe , Washington, National Academy of Sciences.

Bowers, William J. (1974), 'A Causal Framework for the Analysis of Deterrence and Related Processes', in Akers, Ronald L. and Sagarin, Edward (eds.), Crime Prevention and Social Control , New York, Praeger, 22-38.

Bowers, William J. and Pierce, Glenn L. (1975), 'The Illusion of Deterrence in Isach Ehrlich's Research on Capital Punishment', 85 Yale Law Journal , 187-208.

Bowers, William J. and Salem, Richard G. (1972), 'Severity of Formal Sanctions as a Repressive Response to Deviant Behaviour', 7 Law and Society Review , 427-441.

Brier, Stephen S. and Fienberg, Stephen E. (1980), 'Recent Econometric Modeling of Crime and Punishment Support for the Deterrence Hypothesis', 4 Evaluation Review , 147-191.

Brotman, B. A. and Fox P. (1988), 'The Impact of Economic Conditions on the Incidence of Arson: Comment', 55 Journal of Risk and Insurance , 751-754.

Brown, William W. and Reynolds, Morgan O. (1973), 'Crime and "Punishment": Risk Implications', 6 Journal of Economic Theory , 508-514.

Brumm, H. J. and Cloninger D. O. (1995), 'Violent Crime and Punishment: An Application of the LISREL Model', 27 Applied Economics , 719-725.

Buck, Andrew J. and Hakim, Simon (1981), 'A Simultaneous Equation System of Crime and Police', 3 Statistica , 449-457.

Buck, Andrew J. and others (1987), 'A Disaggregated Study of Police Clear-up Rates for England and Wales', 16 Journal of Behavioral Economics , 1-18.

Buck, Andrew J. and others (1987), 'Substitution Between Offence Categories in the Supply of Property Crimes: Some New Evidence', 11 International Journal of Social Economics , 48-60.

Buck, Andrew J., Gross, Meir, Hakim, Simon and Weinblatt, J. (1983), 'The Deterrence Hypothesis Revisited', 13 Regional Science and Urban Economics , 471-486.

Buck, Andrew J., Hakim, Simon and Spiegel, Uriel (1985), 'The Natural Rate of Crime by Type of Community'', 43 Review of Social Economy , 245-259.

Burnovski, M. and Safra, Z. (1994), 'Deterrence Effects of Sequential Punishment Policies: Should Repeat Offenders Be More Severely Punished?', 14 International Journal of Industrial Organization , 341-350.

Bustos Gisbert, Antonio (1995), El debate sobre la legalizaci—n de las drogas blandas: un an‡lisis formalizado (Making Drugs Legal: A Formal Analysis) ,, 155 p.

Cameron, Samuel (1986), 'An Empirical Study of Malicious False Fire Alarm Calls', 6 International Review of Law and Economics , 33-44.

Cameron, Samuel (1987), 'A Disaggregated Study of Police Clear Up Rates for England and Wales', 16(4) Journal of Behavioral Economics , 1-18.

Cameron, Samuel (1987), 'Substitution between Offence Categories in the Supply of Property Crime: Some New Evidence', 14(11) International Journal of Social Economics , 48-60.

Cameron, Samuel (1988), 'The Economics of Crime Deterrence: A Survey of Theory and Evidence', 41 Kyklos , 301-323.

Cameron, Samuel (1989), 'Victim Compensation Does Not Increase the Supply of Crime', 16 Journal of Economic Studies , 52-59.

Cameron, Samuel (1989), 'Police Cost Function Estimates for England and Wales', 21 Applied Economics , 1279-1289.

Cameron, Samuel (1991), 'Non-monotonic Supply of Crime Functions: A Replicatory Studt', 131 Cahiers Economiques de Bruxelles , 305-317.

Carlin, Paul and Sandy, Robert (1990), 'The Value of Time and the Effect of Fines on Child Car Safety Seat Usage', 22 Applied Economics , 463-476.

Caroll, J. and Weaver, F. (1986), 'Shoplifters' Perceptions of Crime Opportunities: A Process-tracing Study', in Cornish, D. B. and Clarke, R. V. (eds.), The Reasoning Criminal , New York, Berlin, Heidelberg, Tokyo, Springer-Verlag.

Carr-Hill, R. A. and Stern, N. H. (1973), 'An Econometric Model of the Supply and Control of Recorded Offences in England and Wales', 2 Journal of Public Economics , 289-318.

Carr-Hill, R.A. and Stern, H.H. (1979), Crime, The Police and Criminal Statistics , London, Academic Press.

Cassone, Alberto and Marchese, Carla (1995), 'Tax Amnesties as Special Sales Offers: the Italian Experience', 50 Public Finance/Finances Publiques , 51-66.

Chalmers, J.A. and Shelton, R.B. (1975), 'An Economic Analysis of Riot Participation', 13 Economic Inquiry , 322-336.

Chaloupka, Frank J., Saffer, Henry and Grossman, Michael (1993), 'Alcohol Control Policies and Motor-Vehicle Fatalities', 22 Journal of Legal Studies , 161-186.

Chapman, Jeffrey I. (1976), 'An Economic Model of Crime and Police: Some Empirical Results', Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency , 48-63.

Chiricos, Theodore G. (1987), 'Rates of Crime and Unemployment: An Analysis of Aggregate Research Evidence', 34 Social Problems , 187-212.

Chu, C. Y. Cyrus (1993), 'Oscillatory vs. Stationary Enforcement of Law', 13 International Review of Law and Economics , 303-315.

Cloninger, Dale O. (1975), 'The Deterrence Effect of Law Enforcement: An Evaluation of Recent Findings and Some New Evidence', 34 American Journal of Economics and Sociology , 323-335.

Cloninger, Dale O. (1987), 'Capital Punishment and Deterrence: A Revision', 16(4) Journal of Behavioral Economics , 55-57.

Cloninger, Dale O. (1991), 'Lethal Police Response as a Crime Deterrent: 57-City Study Suggests a Decrease in Certain Crimes', 50 American Journal of Economics and Sociology , 59-69.

Cloninger, Dale O. (1992), 'Capital punishment and deterrence: a portfolio approach', 24 Applied Economics , 635-645.

Cloninger, Dale O. (1994), 'Enforcement Risk and Deterrence: A Re-examination', 23 Journal of Socio-Economics , 273-285.

Cloninger, Dale O. and Brumm, Harold J. (1995), 'Violent Crime and Punishment: An Application of the LISREL Model', 27 Applied Economics , 719-725.

Cloninger, Dale O. and Sartorius, Lester (1979), 'Crime Rates, Clearance Rates and Enforcement Effort: The case of Houston, Texas', 4 American Journal of Economics and Sociology , 389-402.

Gyimah Brempong, Kwabena (1986), 'Empirical Models of Criminal Behavior: How Significant a Factor Is Race?', 15 Review of Black Political Economy , 27-43.

Hann, Robert G. (1976), Deterrence and the Death Penalty : A Critical Review of the Research of Isaac Ehrlich , Ottawa, Ontario, Research Division of the Solicitor-General of Canada.

Hashimoto, Masanori (1987), 'The Minimum Wage Law and Youth Crimes: Time-Series Evidence', 30 Journal of Law and Economics , 443-464.

Hawkins, Gordon (1971), 'Punishment and Deterrence : The Educative. Moralising andHabituative Effects', in Grupp, Stanley E. (ed.), Theories of Punishment , Bloomington (IN), Indiana University Press, 163-180.

Heineke, J.M. (1975), 'A Note on Modelling the Criminal Choice Problem', 10 Journal of Economic Theory , 113-116.

Heineke, J.M. (ed.) (1978), Economic Models of Criminal Behaviour , Amsterdam, North-Holland, 391 p.

Hellaman, D.A. (1980), The Economics of Crime , New York, St. Martin's Press.

Hellman, Daryl A. and Alper, Neil O. (1990), Economics of Crime: Theory and Practice , Needham Heights, Simon and Schuster, Ginn Press, 226 p.

Hersch, Philip L. and Netter, Jeffrey M. (1984), 'The Effects of Crime Rates on Time Served in Prison: An Empirical Analysis', 39 Public Finance , 314-320.

Hershbarger, R. A. and Miller, R. K. (1988), 'The Impact of Economic Conditions on the Incidence of Arson: A Reply', 55 Journal of Risk and Insurance , 755-757.

Hill, John K. and Pearce, James E. (1990), 'The Incidence of Sanctions against Employers of Illegal Aliens', 98 Journal of Political Economy , 28-44.

Hirsch, Werner Z. and Rufolo, Anthony M. (1985), 'Economic Effects of Residence Laws on Municipal Police', 17 Journal of Urban Economics , 335-348.

Hoenack, Stephen A. and Weiler, William (1980), 'A Structural Model of Murder Behavior', 70 American Economic Review , 327-341.

Hoenack, Stephen A., Kurdle, Robert and Sj¿quist, David (1978), 'The Deterrent Effect of Capital Punishment: A Question of Identification', 4 Policy Analysis , 491-527.

Holtmann, A.G. and Yap, L. (1978), 'Does Punishment Pay?', 33 Public Finance , 90-97.

Howsen, Roy M. and Jarrell, Stephen B. (1987), 'Some Determinants of Property Crime: Economic Factors Influence Criminal Behavior but Cannot Completely Explain the Syndrome', 46 American Journal of Economics and Sociology , 445-457.

Hull, B.B. and Bold, F. (1995), 'Preaching Matters: Replication and Extension', 27 Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization , 143-149.

Jarrell, Stephen B. and Howsen, Roy M. (1990), 'Transient Crowding and Crime: The More 'Strangers' in an Area, the More Crime Except for Murder, Assault and Rape', 49 American Journal of Economics and Sociology , 483-494.

Kaplan, L.J. and Kessler, P. (eds.) (1976), An Economic Analysis of Crime: Selected Readings , Springfield, Charles Thomas.

Karpoff, Jonathan M. and Lott, John R., Jr. (1993), 'The Reputational Penalty Firms Bear from Committing Criminal Fraud', 36 Journal of Law and Economics , 757-802.

Kenkel, Donald S. (1993), 'Drinking, Driving, and Deterrence: The Effectiveness and Social Costs of Alternative Policies', 36 Journal of Law and Economics , 877-913.

Klein, Lawrene R., Forst, Brian and Filatov, Victor (1978), 'The Deterrent Effect of Capital Punishment : An Assessment of the Estimates', in Blumstein, Cohen and Nagin (eds.), Deterrence and Incapacitation : Estimating the Effects of Criminal Sanctions on Crime Rates , Washington, National Academy of Sciences.

Klepper, Stephen and Nagin, Daniel S. (1989), 'The Criminal Deterrence Literature: Implications for Research on Taxpayer Compliance', in Scholz, J.T. et al. (eds.), Paying Taxes: An Agenda for Compliance Research , Philadelphia, University of Philadelphia.

Klepper, Steven and Nagin, Daniel S. (1989), 'The Autonomy of Tax Evasion', 5 Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization , 1-24.

Klevorick, Alvin K. (1985), 'On the Economic Theory of Crime', in Pennock, J. Roland and Chapman, John W. (eds.), Nomos XXVII: Criminal Justice , 289-309.

Kobayashi, Bruce H. (1992), 'Deterrence with Multiple Defendants: an Explanation for 'Unfair' Plea Bargaining', 23 Rand Journal of Economics , 507-515.

Kobayashi, Bruce H. and Lott, John R., Jr. (1992), 'Low Probability-High Penalty Enforcement Strategies and the Efficient Operation of the Plea Bargaining System', 12 International Review of Law and Economics , 69-77.

Kobayashi, Bruce H. and Lott, John R., Jr. (1996), 'In Defense of Criminal Defense Expenditures and Plea Bargaining', 16 International Review of Law and Economics , 397-416.

Komesar, Neil K. (1973), 'A Theoretical and Empirical Study of Victims of Crime', 2 Journal of Legal Studies , 301-321.

Koskela, Erkki and Viren, Matti (1993), 'An Economic Model of Auto Thefts in Finland', 13 International Review of Law and Economics , 179-191.

Landes, William M. (1978), 'An Economic Study of U.S. Aircraft Hijacking, 1961-1976', 21 Journal of Law and Economics , 1-31.

Lattimore, P. K. (1992), 'The Influence of Probability on Risky Choice: A Parametric Examination', 17 Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization , 377-400.

Layson, Stephen K. (1983), 'Homicide and Deterrence: Another View of the Canadian Time Series Evidence', 16 Canadian Journal of Economics , 52-73.

Layson, Stephen K. (1985), 'Homicide and Deterrence: A Reexamination of the United States Time Series Evidence', 52 Southern Economic Journal , 68-89.

Layton, Allan P. (1983), 'The Impact of Increased Penalties on Australian Drink/Driving Behaviour', 19 Logistics and Transportation Review , 261-266.

Lazos, Vaios (1996), 'E Kambyle Adiaforias enos Eglematos (The Indifference Curve of a Crime)', 6 Aissymnetes .

Lejeune, R. (1977), 'Management of a Mugging', 6 Urban Life , 123-148.

Leung, S. F. (1995), 'Dynamic Deterrence Theory', 6 Economica , 65-87.

Lewin, Jeff L. and Trumbull, William N. (1993), 'Neither Boxed in nor Circular: A Reply', 13 International Review of Law and Economics , 233-235.

Lewisch, Peter (1992), 'A Case Study on the Legal Regulation of Shoplifting in Austria and the "Criminal Tourism" from the East', 12 International Review of Law and Economics , 439-455.

Liu, Yih Wu and Bee, Richard H. (1983), 'Modeling Criminal Activity in an Area in Economic Decline: Local Economic Conditions Are a Major Factor in Local Property Crimes', 42 American Journal of Economics and Sociology , 385-392.

Loftin, Colin and McDowall, David (1982), 'The Police, Crime and Economic Theory: An Assessment'', American Sociological Review , 393-401.

Logan, Charles H. (1982), 'Problems in Ratio Correlation: The Case of Deterrence Research', 60 Social Forces , 791-810.

Logan. Charles H. (1975), 'Arrest Rates and Deterrence', 56 Social Science Quarterly , 76-89.

Lott, J. R., Jr. and Roberts, R.D. (1995), 'The Expected Penalty for Committing a Crime: An Analysis of Minimum Wage Violations', 30 Journal of Human Resources , 397-408.

Lott, John R., Jr. (1987), 'Juvenile Delinquency and Education: A Comparison of Public and Private Provision', 7 International Review of Law and Economics , 163-175.

Lott, John R., Jr. (1990), 'Getting Tough on White-Collar Criminals', 13(1) Regulation , 18-19.

Lott, John R., Jr. (1990), 'A Transaction-Costs Explanation for Why the Poor Are More Likely to Commit Crime', 19 Journal of Legal Studies , 243-245.

Lott, John R., Jr. (1990), 'The Effect of Conviction on the Legitimate Income of Criminals', 34 Economic Letters , 381-385.

Lott, John R., Jr. (1992), 'An Attempt at Measuring the Total Monetary Penalty from Drug Convictions: The Importance of an Individual's Reputation', 21 Journal of Legal Studies , 159-187.

Lott, John R., Jr. (1992), 'Do We Punish High Income Criminals Too Heavily?', 30 Economic Inquiry , 583-608.

Lupia, Arthur and McCubbins, Mathew D. (1994), 'Learning from Oversight: Fire Alarms and Police Patrols Reconstructed', 10 Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization , 96-125.

Manski, Charles, F. (1978), 'Prospects for Inference on Deterrence through Empirical Analysis of Individual Criminal Behaviour', in Blumstein, Cohen and Nagin (eds.), Deterrence and Incapacitation : Estimating the Effects of Criminal Sanctions on Crime Rates , Washington, National Academy of Sciences, 400-424.

Marceau, Nicolas (1997), 'Self-Selection and Violence in the Market for Crime', 17 International Review of Law and Economics , 193-201.

Mathieson, Donald and Passell, Peter (1976), 'Homicide and Robbery in New York City: An Economic Model', 5 Journal of Legal Studies , 83-98.

Mathur, Vijay K. (1978), 'Economics of Crime: An Investigation of the Deterrent Hypothesis for Urban Areas', 60 Review of Economics and Statistics , 459-466.

McChesney, Fred S. (1993), 'Boxed in: Economists and Benefits from Crime', 13 International Review of Law and Economics , 225-231.

McCormick, Robert E. and Tollison, Robert D. (1986), 'Crime and Income Distribution in a Basketball Economy', 6 International Review of Law and Economics , 115-124.

McPheters, Lee R. (1978), 'Econometric Analysis of Factors Influencing Crime on the Campus', 6 Journal of Criminal Justice , 47-52.

McPheters, Lee R. and Strange, W.B. (eds.) (1976), The Economics of Crime and Law Enforcement , Springfield, Charles Thomas.

McPheters, Lee R., Mann, Robert and Schlagenhauf, Don E. (1984), 'Economic Response to a Crime Deterrence Program: Mandatory Sentencing for Robbery with a Firearm', 22 Economic Inquiry , 550-570.

Meera, A. K. and Jayakumar M. D. (1995), 'Determinants of Crime in a Developing Country: A Regression ModeL', 27 Applied Economics , 455-460.

Meier, R. F. (ed.) (1985), Theoretical Methods in Criminology , Beverly Hills (CA), Sage Publications.

Melossi, Dario (1987), 'Political Business Cycles and Imprisonment Rates in Italy: Report on a Work in Progress', 16(1-2) Review of Black Political Economy , 211-218.

Miceli, Thomas J., 'Plea Bargaining and Deterrence: An Institutional Approach," Forthcoming.', forth. European Journal of Law and Economics .

Miceli, Thomas J. (1996), 'Plea Bargaining and Deterrence: An Institutional Approach', 3 European Journal of Law and Economics , 249-264.

Michaels, Robert J. (1976), 'Noncriminal Deviance and Mental Hospitalization: Economic Theory and Evidence,', 5 Journal of Legal Studies , 387-433.

Michaels, Robert J. (1988), 'Addiction, Compulsion, and the Technology of Consumption', 26 Economic Inquiry , 75-288.

Myers, Samuel L. Jr. (1980), ''Why are Crimes Underreported? What is the Crime Rate? Does it Really Matter?', 6 Social Science Quarterly , 23-43.

Myers, Samuel L., Jr. (1982), 'Crime in Urban Areas: New Evidence and Results', 11 Journal of Urban Economics , 148-158.

Myers, Samuel L., Jr. (1983), 'Estimating the Economic Model of Crime: Employment versus Punishment Effects', Quarterly Journal of Economics .

Myers, Samuel L., Jr. (1984), 'Do Better Wages Reduce Crime? A Research Note', 43 American Journal of Economics and Sociology , 191-195.

Myers, Samuel L., Jr. (1984), 'Race and Punishment: Directions for Economic Research', 74 American Economic Review , 288-292.

Nagin, Daniel S. (1978), 'General Deterrence: A Review of the Empirical Evidence', in Blumstein, Cohen and Nagin (eds.), Deterrence and Incapacitation : Estimating the Effects of Criminal Sanctions on Crime Rates , Washington, National Academy of Sciences.

Nagin, Daniel S. and Paternoster, R. A. (1993), 'Enduring Individual Differences and Rational Choice Theories of Crime', 27 Law and Society Review , 467-496.

Nagin, Daniel S. and Paternoster, Raymond (1991), 'On the relationship of past to future participation in delinquency', 29 Criminology , 169-189.

Nagin, Daniel S. and Paternoster, Raymond (1991), 'The preventive effects of the perceived risk of arrest: Testing an expanded conception of deterrence', 29 Criminology , 561-587.

Nagin, Daniel S. and Waldfogel, Joel (1995), 'The Effects of Criminality and Conviction on the Labor Market Status of Young British Offenders', 15 International Review of Law and Economics , 109-126.

Neher, Philip A. (1978), 'The Pure Theory of Muggery', 68 American Economic Review , 437-445.

Nickerson, Gary W. (1983), 'Analytical Problems in Explaining Criminal Behavior: Neoclassical and Radical Economic Theories and an Alternative Formulation', 15(4) Review of Radical Political Economy , 1-23.

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