Encyclopedia of Law & Economics - 8000 Optimal Enforcement

Adelstein, Richard P. (1981), 'Institutional Function and Evolution in the Criminal Process', 76 Northwestern University Law Review , 1-99.

Adelstein, Richard P. and Miceli, Thomas J. (1997), Toward a Comparative Economics of Plea Bargaining , Manuscript.

Akins, Nancy (1989), 'New Direction in Sacred Lands Claims: Lyng v. Northwest Indian Cemetery Protective Association', 29 Natural Resources Journal , 593-605.

Altrogge, Phyllis and Shughart, William F., II (1984), 'The Regressive Nature of Civil Penalties', 4 International Review of Law and Economics , 55-66.

Anden¾s, Johannes (1966), 'The General Preventive Effects of Punishment', 114 University of Pennsylvania Law Review , 949-983.

Anden¾s, Johannes (1971), 'Deterrence and Specific Offenses', 38 University of Chicago Law Review , 537-553.

Anden¾s, Johannes (1974), Punishment and Deterrence , Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press.

Anderson, Lee G. and Lee, Dwight R. (1986), 'Optimal Governing Instrument, Operation Level, and Enforcement in Natural Resource Regulation: The Case of the Fishery', 68 American Journal of Agricultural Economics , 678-690.

Andreoni, James (1991), 'Reasonable Doubt and the Optimal Magnitude of Fines: Should the Penalty Fit the Crime?', 22(3) Rand Journal of Economics , 385-395.

Andreoni, James (1995), 'Criminal Deterrence in the Reduced Form: A New Perspective on Ehrlich's Seminal Study', 33 Economic Inquiry , 476-483.

Andreoni, James, Erard, Brian and Feinstein, Jonathan S., 'Tax Compliance', Journal of Economic Literature .

Arlen, Jennifer H., Corporate Crime and Its Control , U.S.C. Law School Working Paper Series, No. 97-2.

Arlen, Jennifer H. (1994), 'The Potentially Perverse Effects of Corporate Criminal Liability', 23 Journal of Legal Studies , 832-867.

Arlen, Jennifer H. and Kraakman, Reinier H. (1997), 'Controlling Corporate Misconduct: An Analysis of Corporate Liability Regimes', 72 New York University Law Review , 687-779.

Avio, Kenneth L. (1975), 'Recidivism in the Economic Model of Crime', 13 Economic Inquiry , 450-456.

Avio, Kenneth L. (1987), 'Clemency in Economic and Retributive Models of Punishment', 7 International Review of Law and Economics , 79-88.

Avio, Kenneth L. and Clark, C. Scott (1976), Property Crime in Canada: An Econometric Study , Toronto, University of Toronto Press.

Avio, Kenneth L. and Clark, C. Scott (1978), 'The Supply of Property Offences in Canada: Evidence on the Deterrent Effect of Punishment', 11 Canadian Journal of Economics , 1-19.

Ayres, Ian and Levitt, Steven D., 'Measuring the Positive Externalities from Unobservable Victim Precaution: An Empirical Analysis of Lojack', Quarterly Journal of Economics .

Baldry, Jonathan C. (1980), 'Crimes Punishable by Imprisonment: A Note', 9 Journal of Legal Studies , 617-619.

Baldry, Jonathan C. (1984), 'The Enforcement of Income Tax Laws: Efficiency Implications', 60 Economic Record , 156-159.

Basu, Kaushik, Bhattacharya, Sudipto and Mishra, Ajit (1992), 'Notes on Bribery and the Control of Corruption', 48(3) Journal of Public Economics , 349-359.

Baudenbacher, Carl (1985), Rechtsverwirklichung als škonomisches Problem? Zur †berlastung der Zivilgerichte (Enforcement of Law as an Economic Problem? On the Overload of the Civil Courts], Zurich, Schulthess,) ,.

Bebchuk, Lucian Arye and Kaplow, Louis (1992), 'Optimal Sanctions When Individuals Are Imperfectly Informed about the Probability of Apprehension', 21 Journal of Legal Studies , 365-370.

Bebchuk, Lucian Arye and Kaplow, Louis (1993), 'Optimal Sanctions and Differences in Individuals' Likelihood of Avoiding Detection', 13 International Review of Law and Economics , 217-224.

Beccaria, Cesare (1770), On Crimes and Punishments, and Other Writings ,. Reprinted by Bellamy, Richard (ed.); Davies, Richard, et al. (trans.), New York, Cambridge University Press, 1995

Becker, Gary S. (1968), 'Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach', 76 Journal of Political Economy , 169-217.

Becker, Gary S. and Landes, William M. (eds.) (1974), Essays in the Economics of Crime and Punishment , New York, Columbia University Press, 268 p.

Becker, Gary S. and Stigler, George J. (1974), 'Law Enforcement, Malfeasance, and Compensation of Enforcers', 3 Journal of Legal Studies , 1-18.

Ben-Shahar, Omri (1993), Playing Without a Rulebook: Optimal Sanction Under Incomplete Information , Discussion Paper, Program in Law and Economics, Harvard Law School, No. 134.

Ben-Shahar, Omri (1997), 'Playing Without a Rulebook: Optimal Enforcement When Individuals Learn the Penalty Only by Committing the Crime', 17 International Review of Law and Economics , 409-421.

Ben-Shahar, Omri and Harel, Alon (1995), ''Blaming the Victim': Optimal Incentives for Private Precautions Against Crime', 11 Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization , 434-455.

Ben-Shahar, Omri and Harel, Alon (1996), 'The Economics of the Law of Criminal Attempts: a Victim-Centered Perspective', 145(1) University of Pennsylvania Law Review , 299-351.

Benson, Bruce L. (1981), 'A Note on Corruption of Public Officials: The Black Market for Property Rights', 5 Journal of Libertarian Studies , 305-311.

Benson, Bruce L. (1984), 'Guns for Protection and Other Private Sector Responses to the Fear of Violent Crime', in Kates, Don, Jr. (ed.), Firearms and Violence: Issues of Regulation , Cambridge (MA), Ballinger, 329-356.

Benson, Bruce L. (1986), 'Guns for Protection and Other Private Sector Responses to Government's Failure to Control Increasing Violent Crime', 8 Journal of Libertarian Studies , 75-109.

Benson, Bruce L. (1986), 'The Lost Victim and Other Failures of the Public Law Experiment', 9 Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy , 399-427.

Benson, Bruce L. (1988), 'An Institutional Explanation for Corruption of Criminal Justice Officials', 8(1) Cato Journal , 139-163.

Benson, Bruce L. (1988), 'Corruption in Law Enforcement: One Consequence of "The Tragedy of the Commons" Arising with Public Allocation Processes', 8 International Review of Law and Economics , 73-84.

Benson, Bruce L. (1992), 'The Development of Criminal Law and Its Enforcement: Public Interest or Political Transfers', 3 Journal des Economistes et des Etudes Humaines , 79-108.

Benson, Bruce L. (1994), 'Are Public Goods Really Common Pools: Considerations of the Evolution of Policing and Highways in England', 39 Economic Inquiry , 249-271.

Benson, Bruce L. (1996), 'Restitution in Theory and in Practice', 12 Journal of Libertarian Studies , 75-98.

Benson, Bruce L. and Baden, John A. (1985), 'The Political Economy of Government Corruption: The Logic of Underground Government', 14 Journal of Legal Studies , 391-410.

Benson, Bruce L. and Rasmussen, David W. (1991), 'The Relationship Between Illicit Drug Enforcement Policy and Property Crimes', 9 Contemporary Policy Issues , 106-115.

Benson, Bruce L. and Rasmussen, David W. (1992), Illinois' War on Drugs: Some Unintended Consequences , Heartland Policy Study, Chicago, Heartland Institute, No. 48.

Benson, Bruce L. and Rasmussen, David W. (1995), 'Crime and Punishment', in Denslow, David A., Scoggins, J.F. and Shermyen, Anne (eds.), The Economy of Florida , Gainesville (FL), Bureau of Economic and Business Research, 99-116.

Benson, Bruce L. and Rasmussen, David W. (1995), Illicit Drugs and Crime , Independent Policy Report, Oakland, Independent Institute.

Benson, Bruce L., Kim, Iljoong and Rasmussen, David W. (1994), 'Estimating Deterrence Effects: A Public Choice Prospective on the Economics of Crime Literature', 61 Southern Economic Journal , 161-168.

Benson, Bruce L., Kim, Iljoong, Rasmussen, David W. and Zuehlke, Thomas W. (1992), 'Is Property Crime Caused by Drug Use or Drug Enforcement Policy?', 24 Applied Economics , 679-692.

Benson, Bruce L., Kim, Iljoong, Rasmussen, David W. and Zuehlke, Thomas W. (1993), 'An Economic Analysis of Recidivism Among Drug Offenders', 60 Southern Economic Journal , 169-183.

Benson, Bruce L., Rasmussen, David W. and Sollars, David L. (1995), 'Police Bureaucrats, Their Incentives, and the War on Drugs', 83 Public Choice , 21-45.

Bentham, Jeremy (1973), 'An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation', in X. (ed.), The Utilitarians , Rept. Garden City (N.Y.), Anchor Books.

Besanko, David A. and Spulber, Daniel F. (1989), 'Delegated Law Enforcement and Noncooperative Behavior', 5 Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization , 25-52.

Black, Bernard and Kraakman, Reinier H. (1996), 'A Self-Enforcing Model of Corporate Law', 109 Harvard Law Review , 1911-1979.

Blades, Derek W. (1985), 'Crime: What Should Be Recorded in the National Accounts; and What Difference Would It Make', in Gaertner, Wulf and Wenig, Alois (eds.), The Economics of the Shadow Economy: Proceedings of th International Conference on the Economics of the Shadow Economy Held at the University of Bielefeld, West Germany, October 10-14, 1983 , Berlin, Springer, 45-58.

Block, Michael K. (1991), 'Optimal Penalties, Criminal Law and the Control of Corporate Behavior', 71 Boston University Law Review , 395-419.

Block, Michael K. and Feinstein, Jonathan S. (1986), 'The Spillover Effect of Antitrust Enforcement', 68 Review of Economics and Statistics , 122-131.

Block, Michael K. and Lind, Robert C. (1975), 'An Economic Analysis of Crimes Punishable by Imprisonment', 4 Journal of Legal Studies , 479-492.

Block, Michael K. and Lind, Robert C. (1975), 'Crime and Punishment Reconsidered', 4 Journal of Legal Studies , 241-247.

Block, Michael K. and Sidak, Joseph Gergory (1980), 'The Cost of Antitrust Deterrence: Why Not Hang a Price Fixer Now and Then?', 68 Georgetown Law Journal , 1131-1139.

Block, Michael K., Nold, Frederik Carl and Sidak, J. Gregory (1981), 'The Deterrent Effect of Antitrust Enforcement', 89 Journal of Political Economy , 429-445.

Blumstein, A. (1971), 'Cost-Effectiviness Analysis in the Allocation of Police Resources', in Kendall, M.G. (ed.), Cost-benefit Analysis , London, English Universities Press.

Bone, J. (1985), 'On Substituting a Socially Costless Penalty for Costly Crime', 5 International Review of Law and Economics , 239-246.

Bose, Pinaki (1995), 'Anticipatory Compliance and Effective Regulatory Activity', 15 International Review of Law and Economics , 151-159.

Bose, Pinaki (1995), 'Regulatory Errors, Optimal Fines, and the Level of Compliance', 56 Journal of Public Economics , 475-484.

Bourbeau, Robert (1983), Les accidents de la route au QuŽbec 1926-1978: Žtude dŽmographique et ŽpidŽmiologique (Road Accidents in Quebec, 1926-1978: A Demographic and Epidemiologic Study) , MontrŽal, Presses de l'UniversitŽ de MontrŽal.

Bowles, Roger A. (1982), Law and the Economy , Oxford, Martin Robertson, 239 p.

Bowles, Roger A. and Garoupa, Nuno (1997), 'Casual Police Corruption and the Economics of Crime', 17 International Review of Law and Economics , 75-87.

Boyer, Marcel, Dionne, Georges and Vanasse, Charles (1991), 'Infractions au code de la sŽcuritŽ routire, infractions au code criminel et gestion optimale de la sŽcuritŽ routire (Infractions to the Road Safety Code, Infractions to the Criminal Code and Optimal Management of Road Safety)', 67 L'actualitŽ Economique , 279-305.

Braden, John B. and others (1987), 'A Displacement Model of Regulatory Compliance and Costs', 63 Land Economics , 323-336.

Brotman, B.A. and Fox, P. (1988), 'The Impact of Economic Conditions on the Incidence of Arson: Comment', 55 Journal of Risk and Insurance , 751-754.

Brown, William W. and Reynolds, Morgan O. (1973), 'Crime and "Punishment": Risk Implications', 6 Journal of Economic Theory , 508-514.

Buck, Andrew J. and others (1983), 'The Deterrence Hypothesis Revisited', 13 Regional Science and Urban Economics , 471-486.

Burnovski, Moshe and Safra, Zvi (1994), 'Deterrence Effects of Sequential Punishment Policies: Should Repeat Offenders Be More Severely Punished?', 14 International Review of Law and Economics , 341-350.

Cadot, Olivier (1987), 'Corruption as a Gamble', 33(2) Journal of Public Economics , 223-244.

Calfee, John E. and Craswell, Richard (1984), 'Some Effects of Uncertainty on Compliance with Legal Standards', 70 Virginia Law Review , 965-1003.

Calfee, John E. and Rubin, Paul H. (1992), 'Some Implications of Damage Payments for Nonpecuniary Losses', 21 Journal of Legal Studies , 371-411.

Cameron, Samuel (1988), 'The Economics of Crime Deterrence: A Survey of Theory and Evidence', 41 Kyklos , 301-323.

Cameron, Samuel (1989), 'On the Welfare Economics of Capital Punishment', 28 Australian Economic Papers , 253-266.

Campbell, Donald T. and Ross, H. Laurence (1988), 'The Connecticut Crackdown on Speeding: Time-Series Data in Quasi-experimental Analysis', in Overman, E. Samuel (ed.), Methodology and Epistemology of Social Science: Selected Papers , Chicago and London, University of Chicago Press, 222-237.

Carlin, Paul and Sandy, Robert (1990), 'The Value of Time and the Effect of Fines on Child Car Safety Seat Usage', 22 Applied Economics , 463-476.

Carr-Hill, R. A. and Stern, N. H. (1979), Crime, the Police and Criminal Statistics: An Analysis of Official Statistics for England and Wales Using Econometric Methods , London, Academic Press.

Chu, C. Y. Cyrus (1979), 'Crime and Punishment with Possible Post-Offense Compromise', 17 Academia Economic Papers , 131-167.

Chu, C. Y. Cyrus (1991), 'Note: An Economic Analysis of the Criminal Proceedings in Civil-Law Countries', 11 International Review of Law and Economics , 111-116.

Chu, C. Y. Cyrus (1993), 'Oscillatory vs. Stationary Enforcement of Law', 13 International Review of Law and Economics , 303-315.

Chu, C. Y. Cyrus and Jiang, Neville (1993), 'Are Fines More Efficient than Imprisonment?', 51 Journal of Public Economics , 391-413.

Chu, C. Y. Cyrus, Hu, Sheng Cheng and Huang, Ting-Yuan (1997), Punishing Repeat Offenders More Severely , Manuscript.

Chwe, Michael Suk-Young (1990), 'Why Were Workers Whipped? Pain in a Principal-Agent Model', 100 Economic Journal , 1109-1121.

Clotfelter, Charles T. (1977), 'Public Services, Private Substitutes, and the Demand for Protection Against Crime', 67 American Economic Review , 867-877.

Clotfelter, Charles T. (1983), 'Tax Evasion and Tax Rates: An Analysis of Individual Returns', 65 Review of Economics and Statistics , 363-373.

Coffee, John C., Jr. (1980), 'Corporate Crime and Punishment: A Non-Chicago View of the Economics of Criminal Sanctions', 17 American Criminal Law Review , 419-476.

Coffee, John C., Jr. (1986), 'Understanding the Plaintiff's Attorney: the Implications of Economic Theory for Private Enforcement of Law through Class and Derivative Actions', 86 Columbia Law Review , 669-727.

Cohen, Mark A (1996), 'Theories of Punishment and Empirical Trends in Corporate Criminal Sanctions', 17 Managerial and Decision Economics , 399-411.

Cohen, Mark A. (1986), 'The Costs and Benefits of Oil Spill Prevention and Enforcement', 13 Journal of Environmental Economics and Management , 167-188.

Cohen, Mark A. (1987), 'Optimal Enforcement Strategy to Prevent Oil Spills: An Application of a Principal-Agent Model with Moral Hazard', 30 Journal of Law and Economics , 23-51.

Cohen, Mark A. (1989), 'Corporate Crime and Punishment: A Study of Social Harm and Sentencing Practice in the Federal Courts, 1984-1987', 26(3) American Criminal Law Review , 605-660.

Cohen, Mark A. (1989), 'The Role of Criminal Sanctions in Antitrust Enforcement', 7(4) Contemporary Policy Issues , 36-46.

Cohen, Mark A. (1991), 'Corporate Crime and Punishment: An Update on Sentencing Practice in the Federal Courts, 1988-1990', 71(2) Boston University Law Review , 247-280.

Cohen, Mark A. (1992), 'Environmental Crime and Punishment: Legal/Economic Theory and Empirical Evidence on Enforcement of Federal Environmental Statutes', 82 Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology , 1054-1108.

Cohen, Mark A. and Scheffman, David T. (1989), 'The Antitrust Sentencing Guideline: Is the Punishment Worth the Costs?', 27(2) American Criminal Law Review , 331-366.

Cohen, Mark A., Chih-Chin Ho, Edward D. Jones, III. and Laura M. Schleich (1988), 'Organizations as Defendants in Federal Court: A Preliminary Analysis of Prosecutions, Convictions and Sanctions, 1984-1987', 10(1) Whittier Law Review , 103-124.

Cook, Philip J. (1977), 'Punishment and Crime: A Critique of Current Findings Concerning the Preventative Effects of Punishment', 41(1) Law and Contemporary Problems , 164-209.

Cook, Philip J. (1980), 'Research in Criminal Deterrence: Laying the Groundwork for the Second Decade', in Morris, Norval and Tonry, Michael (eds.), Crime and Justice: An Annual Review of Research , University of Chicago Press, 211-268.

Cook, Philip J. (1983), 'Costs of Crime', in Kadisch, Sanford H. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Crime and Justice , New York, Free Press, 373-378.

Cook, Philip J. (1986), 'The Relationship Between Victim Resistance and Injury in Noncommercial Robbery', 15 Journal of Legal Studies , 405-416.

Cook, Philip J. (1987), 'The Economics of Criminal Sanctions', in Friedland, M. L. (ed.), Sanctions and Rewards in the Legal System: A Multidisciplinary Approach , Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 50-78.

Cook, Philip J. and Tauchen, George (1984), 'The Effect of Minimum Drinking Age Legislation on Youthful Auto Fatalities, 1970-1977', 13 Journal of Legal Studies , 169-190.

Cook, Philip J., Molliconi, Stephanie and Cole, Thomas B. (1995), 'Regulating Gun Markets', 86 Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology , 59-92.

Cooter, Robert D. (1985), 'Prices and Sanctions', 84 Columbia Law Review , 1523-1560.

Cooter, Robert D. (1991), 'Lapses, Conflict, and Akrasia in Torts and Crimes: Towards An Economic Theory of the Will', 11 International Review of Law and Economics , 149-164.

Cooter, Robert D. and Landa, Janet T. (1984), 'Personal versus Impersonal Trade: The Size of Trading Groups and Contract Law', 4 International Review of Law and Economics , 15-22.

Cooter, Robert D. and Rubinfeld, Daniel L. (1989), 'Economic Analysis of Legal Disputes and Their Resolution', 27 Journal of Economic Literature , 1067-1097. Reprinted in Posner, Richard A. and Parisi, Francesco (Eds.), Law and Economics, Edward Elgar, 1996 forthcoming.

Cooter, Robert D. and Ulen, Thomas S. (1988), Law and Economics , Scott Foresman. Reprinted in Japanese translation by Prof. Shozo Ota, introduction by Prof. Koji Shimdo, published by Shoji-Homu in 1989.

Cox, Gary W. (1994), 'A Note on Crime and Punishment', 78 Public Choice , 115-124.

Craswell, Richard (1996), 'Damage Multipliers in Market Relationships', 25 Journal of Legal Studies , 463-492.

Craswell, Richard and Calfee, John E. (1986), 'Deterrence and Uncertain Legal Standards', 2 Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization , 279-303.

Curran, Christopher and Dwyer, Gerald P., Jr. (1989), 'The Effect of the Double Nickel Speed Limit on Death Rates', in Faure, Michael and Van Den Bergh, Roger (eds.), Essays in Law and Economics. Corporations, Accident Prevention and Compensation for Losses , Antwerpen, Maklu, 117-156.

Daniel, Kermit and Lott, John R., Jr. (1995), 'Should Criminal Penalties Include Third Party Avoidance Costs?', 24 Journal of Legal Studies , 523-534.

Das Gupta, Arindam and Mookherjee, Dilip (1995), Tax Amnesties in India: An Empirical Evaluation , Institute for Economic Development, Boston University, Discussion Paper, No. 53.

Dau-Schmidt, Kenneth G. (1984), 'Sentencing Antitrust Offenders: Reconciling Economic Theory with Legal Theory', 9 Wm. Mitchell Law Review , 75 ff.

Dau-Schmidt, Kenneth G. (1990), 'An Economic Analysis of the Criminal Law as a Preference Shaping Policy', Duke Law Journal , 1-38.

Dau-Schmidt, Kenneth G. (1992), 'An Agency Cost Analysis of the Sentencing Reform Act: Recalling the Virtues of Delegating Complex Decisions', 25 U.C. Davis Law Review , 659 ff.

Davis, Michael L. (1988), 'Time and Punishment: An Intertemporal Model of Crime', 96 Journal of Political Economy , 383-390.

Deyak, Timothy A. and Smith, V. Kerry (1976), 'The Economic Value of Statute Reform: The Case of Liberalised Abortion', 84 Journal of Political Economy , 83-99.

Dickens, William T. (1986), 'Crime and Punishment Again: The Economic Approach with a Psychological Twist', 30 Journal of Public Economics , 97-107.

Diver, Colin S. (1980), 'A Theory of Regulatory Enforcement', 28 Public Policy , 257-299.

Donohue, John J. III (1979), Criminal Code Revision - Contempt of Court and Related Offenses , Hearings before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice of the House Judiciary Committee.

Doorenbos, D.R. and Roording, J.F.L. (1990), 'Rechtseconomie en strafrecht: een rechtseconomische analyse van de bestrijding van misbruik van voorwetenschap bij de handel in effecten (Law-and-Economics and Criminal Law: A Law-and-economics Analysis of Insider Trading in Securities)', 39 Ars Aequi , 733-742.

Dosser, D. (1964), 'Notes for Standards for Distribution of a Free Governmental Service: Crime Prevention', 19 Public Finance , 375-401.

Dumouchel, William, Williams, Allan F. and Zador, Paul L. (1987), 'Raising the Alcohol Purchase Age: It's Effects on Fatal Motor Vehicle Crashes in Twenty-six States', 16 Journal of Legal Studies , 249-266.

Dye, Ronald A. (1986), 'Optimal Monitoring Policies in Agencies', 17 Rand Journal of Economics , 339-350.

Earnhart, Dietrich (1997), 'Enforcement of Environmental Protection Laws Under Communism and Democracy', 40 Journal of Law and Economics , 377-402.

Ehrlich, Isaac (1972), 'The Deterrent Effect of Criminal Law Enforcement', 1 Journal of Legal Studies , 259-276.

Ehrlich, Isaac (1972), 'Participation in Illegitimate Activities: A Theoretical and Empirical Investigation', 80 Journal of Political Economy , 521-565.

Ehrlich, Isaac (1975), 'The Deterrent Effect of Capital Punishment: A Question of Life and Death', 65 American Economic Review , 397-417.

Ehrlich, Isaac (1981), 'On the Usefulness of Controlling Individuals: An Economic Analysis of Rehabilitation, Incapacitation and Deterrence', 71 American Economic Review , 307-332.

Ehrlich, Isaac (1982), 'On Positive Methodology, Ethics, and Polemics in Deterrence Research', 22 British Journal of Criminology , 124-139.

Ehrlich, Isaac (1982), 'The Optimum Enforcement of Laws and the Concept of Justice: A Positive Analysis', 2 International Review of Law and Economics , 3-27.

Ehrlich, Isaac (1996), 'Crime, Punishment and the Market for Offenses', 10 Journal of Economic Perspectives , 43-67.

Ehrlich, Isaac and Brower, George D. (1987), 'On the Issue of Causality in the Economic Model of Crime and the Law Enforcement: Some Theoretical Considerations and Experimental Evidence', 77 AEA Papers and Proceedings , 99-110.

Eide, Erling (1994), Economics of Crime: Deterrence and the Rational Offender , Amsterdam, Elsevier.

Eide, Erling (1995), RDEU Models of Crime , Instituto for privatrett, University of Oslo, Working Paper Law and Economics, No. C1.

Eide, Erling (1997), Economics of Criminal Behavior: Survey and Bibliography , University of Oslo Working Papers, No. C5.

Elhauge, Einer Richard and Bundy Stephen M. (1993), 'Knowledge About Legal Sanctions', 92 Michigan Law Review , 201 ff.

Elzinga, Kenneth G. and Breit, William (1976), The Antitrust Penalties: A Study in Law and Economics , New Haven, Yale University Press, 160 p.

Epple, Dennis and Visscher, Michael (1984), 'Environmental Pollution: Modelling Occurrence, Detection, and Deterrence', 27 Journal of Law and Economics , 29-60.

Epstein, Richard A. (1975), 'Intentional Harms', 4 Journal of Legal Studies , 391-442.

Evans, William N., Neville, Doreen and Graham, John D. (1991), 'General Deterrence of Drunk Driving: Evaluation of Recent American Policies', 11 Risk Analysis , 279-289.

Faith, Roger L. and Tollison, Robert D. (1983), 'The Pricing of Surrogate Crime and Law Enforcement', 12 Journal of Legal Studies , 401-411.

Faure, Michael G. (1990), 'De verzekering van geldboeten bij zeewaterverontreiniging door olie (The Insurance of Fines with Respect to the Oil-Pol)', in X (ed.), Grensoverschrijdend strafrecht. Opstellen , Arnhem, Gouda Quint, 203-221.

Feinstein, Jonathan S. (1990), 'Detection Controlled Estimation', 33 Journal of Law and Economics , 233-276.

Fenn, Paul T. and Veljanovski, Cento G. (1988), 'A Positive Economic Theory of Regulatory Enforcement', 98 Economic Journal , 1055-1070.

Finsinger, Jšrg, Hoehn, T. and Pototschnig, A. (1991), 'The Enforcement of Product Liability Rules: A Two-Country Analysis of Court Cases', 11 International Review of Law and Economics , 133-148.

Fischer, Charles C. (1987), 'Forensic Economics and the Wrongful Death of a Household Producer: Current Practices, Methodological Biases and Alternative Solutions of Losses', 46 American Journal of Economics and Sociology , 219-228.

Fleisher, Arthur A. III and others (1988), 'Crime or Punishment? Enforcement of the NCAA Football Cartel', 10 Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization , 433-451.

Fletcher, George P. (1985), 'A Transaction Cost Theory of Crime?', 85 Columbia Law Review , 921-930.

Forst, Brian and Brosi, Kathleen B. (1977), 'A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis of the Prosecutor', 6 Journal of Legal Studies , 177-191.

Fowles, Richard and Loeb, Peter D. (1989), 'Speeding, Coordination, and the 55-MPH Limit: Comment', 79 American Economic Review , 916-921.

Frank, JŸrgen (1987), '…konomische Modelle der Abschreckung (Economic Models of Deterrence)', 1 Kriminologisches Journal , 55-65.

Franken, Hans (1983), 'Economische analyse van het strafrecht (Economic Analysis of Criminal Law)', in X (ed.), Bij deze stand van zaken. Opstellen aangeboden aan A.L. Melai , Arnhem, Gouda Quint, 117-131.

Franken, Hans (1987), 'Voorkomen is beter dan genezen (Prevention is Better Than Cure)', RMThemis , 469-471.

Franken, Hans (1991), 'Rechtseconomie en strafrecht (Law-and- Economics and Criminal Law)', in Hondius, E.H., Schippers, J.J. and Siegers, J. (eds.), Rechtseconomie en Recht , Zwolle, Tjeenk Willink, 163-179.

Franzoni, Luigi Alberto, 'Punishment and Grace: On the Economics of Permanent Amnesties', Public Finance/Finances Publiques .

Franzoni, Luigi Alberto (1995), Negotiated Enforcement and Criminal Deterrence , University of Bologna, Manuscript.

Franzoni, Luigi Alberto (1997), Amnesties, Settlements and Optimal Tax Enforcement , University of Bologna, Manuscript.

Franzoni, Luigi Alberto (1997), 'Tax Evasion and Tax Compliance', in X., Encyclopedia of Law and Economics , Edward Elgar and University of Gent.

Friedman, David D. (1979), 'Private Creation and Enforcement of Law: A Historical Case', 8 Journal of Legal Studies , 399-415.

Friedman, David D. (1981), 'Reflections on Optimal Punishment or: Should the Rich Pay Higher Fines ?', 3 Research in Law and Economics , 185-205.

Friedman, David D. (1991), 'Impossibility, Subjective Probability, and Punishments for Attempts', 20 Journal of Legal Studies , 179-186.

Friedman, David D. and Sjostrom, William (1993), 'Hanged for a Sheep: The Economics of Marginal Deterrence', 22 Journal of Legal Studies , 345-366.

Furlong, William J. (1987), 'A General Equilibrium Model of Crime Commission and Prevention', 34 Journal of Public Economics , 87-103.

Gander, James P. (1986), 'Highway Speed and Uncertainty of Enforcement: The Traveling Salesman(or Trucker) Case', 22 Logistics and Transportation Review , 43-55.

Garoupa, Nuno (1995), Optimal Law Enforcement and Imperfect Information , University of York, Discussion Paper, No. 95/96.

Garoupa, Nuno (1996), 'Prison, Parole and the Criminal Justice Act 1991', 18 Research in Law and Economics .

Garoupa, Nuno (1997), The Role of Moral Values in the Economic Analysis of Crime: A General Equilibrium Approach , Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Manuscript.

Garoupa, Nuno (1997), The Economics of Organized Crime and Optimal Law Enforcement: the Urge for a Tougher Policy , Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Manuscript.

Garoupa, Nuno (1997), 'A Note on Private Enforcement and Type-I Error', 17 International Review of Law and Economics , 423-429.

Garoupa, Nuno (1997), Essays on the Theory of Optimal Law Enforcement , University of York, Phil. Thesis.

Garoupa, Nuno (1997), 'A Note on Private Enforcement and Type I Error', 17 International Review of Law and Economics .

Garoupa, Nuno (1997), 'The Theory of Optimal Law Enforcement', 11 Journal of Economic Surveys , 267-295.

Gibbons, T. (1982), 'The Utility of Economic Analysis of Crime', 2 International Review of Law and Economics , 173-191.

Gibbs, J. (1968), 'Crime, Punishment and Deterrence', 48 Southwestern Social Science Quarterly , 515-530.

Gibbs, J. (1975), Crime, Punishment and Deterrence , New York, Elsevier.

Goel, Rajeev K. and Rich, Daniel P. (1989), 'On the Economic Incentives for Taking Bribes', 61 Public Choice , 269-275.

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