Encyclopedia of Law & Economics - 2000 Common Property: General Theory (incl. Common Property versus Private Property)

Acheson, James M. (1988), The Lobster Gangs of Maine , Hanover (NH), University Press of New England.

Ackerman, Bruce A. (ed.) (1975), Economic Foundations of Property Law , Boston, Little Brown, 332 p.

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Agrawal, Arun (1994), 'Rules, Rule Making, and Rule Breaking: Examining the Fit between Rule Systems and Resource Use', in Ostrom, Elinor, Gardner, Roy and Walker, James M. (eds.), Rules, Games, and Common-Pool Resources , Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, 276-282.

Agrawal, Arun (1996), Group Size and Successful Collective Action: A Case Study of Forest Management Institutions in the Indian Himalayas , Forests, Trees and People Programme, Phase II, Working paper, Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

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Aguilera-Klink, Federico (1991), The Tragedy of the Commons or the Tragedy of Misinterpretation in Economics , presented at the second annual conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Manitoba, Winnipeg.

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Alchian, Armen A. (1961), Some Economics of Property , Rand Corporation, No. P-2316.

Alchian, Armen A. and Demsetz, Harold (1973), 'The Property Right Paradigm', 33 Journal of Economic History , 16-27.

Allen, Douglas W. (1991), 'Origins of Theories of Organization: The Common Property Root: Comments', in Rymes, Thomas K. (ed.), Gordon, H. Scott. Welfare, property rights and economic policy: Essays and tributes in honour of H. Scott Gordon , Ottawa, Carleton University Press, 75-85.

Allen, Douglas W. (1991), 'Homesteading and Property Rights; or "How the West Was Really Won"', 34 Journal of Law and Economics , 1-23.

Allen, P. M. and McGlade, J. M. (1987), 'Modelling Complex Human Systems: A Fisheries Example', 30 European Journal of Operational Research , 147-167.

Allison, S. T. and Messick, David M. (1985), 'Effects of Experience on Performance in a Replenishable Resource Trap', 49 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 943-948.

Alston, Lee J., Eggertsson, Thrainn and North, Douglass C. (1996), Empirical Studies in Institutional Change , New York, Cambridge University Press.

Alston, Lee J., Libecap, Gary D. and Schneider, Robert (1996), 'The Determinants and Impact of Property Rights: Land Titles on the Brazilian Frontier', 12 , 25-61.

Andelson, Robert V. (1991), 'Commons Without Tragedy: The Congruence of Garrett Hardin and Henry George', in Andelson, R.V. (ed.), Commons Without Tragedy: The Social Ecology of Land Tenure and Democracy , London, Centre for Incentive Taxation.

Anderson, C. Leigh (1991), Nature vs. Nurture: Systems of Property Rights in First Peoples , presented at the second annual conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Manitoba, Winnipeg.

Anderson, J. M. (1974), 'Model for Tragedy of Commons', 2434(1) IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics , 103-105.

Anderson, Terry L. (1992), Property Rights and Indian Economies , Savage (MD), Rowman and Littlefield.

Anderson, Terry L. and Hill, Peter J. (1975), 'The Evolution of Property Rights: A Study of the American West', 18 Journal of Law and Economics , 163-179.

Anderson, Terry L. and Hill, Peter J. (1978), 'An American Experiment in Anarcho-Capitalism: The Not so Wild, Wild West', 2 Journal of Libertarian Studies , 9-29.

Anderson, Terry L. and Hill, Peter J. (1983), 'Privatizing the Commons: An Improvement?', 50 Southern Economic Journal , 438-450.

Anderson, Terry L. and Hill, Peter J. (1986), 'Privatizing the Commons: Comment', 52 Southern Economic Journal , 1162-1167.

Anderson, Terry L. and Hill, Peter J. (1987), 'Privatizing the Commons: Reply', 54 Southern Economic Journal , 225-226.

Anderson, Terry L. and Lueck, Dean (1992), 'Land Tenure and Agricultural Productivity on Indian Reservations', 35 Journal of Law and Economics , 427-454.

Antilla, Sten and Torp, Aivind (1996), Environmental Adjustment and Private Economic Strategies in Reindeer Pastoralism: Combining Game Theory with Participatory Action Theory , Working Paper, Mid-Sweden University.

Arnason, Ragnar (1990), 'Minimum Information Management in Fisheries', 23(3) Canadian Journal of Economics , 630-653.

Arnold, J. E. M. (1993), 'Management of Forest Resources as Common Property', 72(3) Commonwealth Forestry Review , 157-161.

Arnold, J. E. M. and Campbell, J. Gabriel (1986), 'Collective Management of Hill Forests in Nepal: The Community Forestry Development Project', in X (ed.), National Research Council, Proceedings of the Conference on Common Property Resource Management , Washington, National Academy Press, 425-454.

Arnold, J. E. M. and Stewart, W.C. (1989), Common Property Resource Management in India , Tropical Forestry Papers, University of Oxford, Forestry Institute, Department of Plant Sciences.

Ascher, William (1995), Communities and Sustainable Forestry in Developing Countries , San Francisco, ICS Press.

Atran, Scott (1986), 'Hamula Organization and Masha'a Tenure in Palestine', 21 Man , 271-295.

Atran, Scott (1993), 'Itza Maya Tropical Agro-Forestry', 34(5) Current Anthropology , 633-700.

Ault, David E. and Rutman, Gilbert L. (1979), 'The Development of Individual Rights to Property in Tribal Africa', 22 Journal of Law and Economics , 163-182.

Ault, David E. and Rutman, Gilbert L. (1989), 'Land Scarcity, Economic Efficiency and African Common Law', 12 Research in Law and Economics , 33-54.

Baack, Bennett (1982), 'Testing the Impact of Exclusive Property Rights: The Case of Enclosing Commons Fields', in Ransom, R. (ed.), Explorations in the New Economic History: Essays in Honor of Douglass C. North , New York, Academic Press.

Backhaus, JŸrgen G. and Krabbe, J. J. (1991), 'Henry George's Contribution to Modern Environmental Policy: Part I, Theoretical Postulates', 50(4) American Journal of Economics and Sociology , 485-501.

Backhaus, JŸrgen G. and Krabbe, J. J. (1992), 'Henry George's Contribution to Modern Environmental Policy: Part II, the Theory Applied', 51(1) American Journal of Economics and Sociology , 115-127.

Baden, John A. (1977), 'A Primer for the Management of Common Pool Resources', in Hardin, Garrett and Baden, John (eds.), Managing the Commons , San Francisco, Freeman.

Bailey, Martin J. (1992), 'Approximate Optimality of Aboriginal Property Rights', 35 Journal of Law and Economics , 183-198.

Baird, Douglas G., Gertner, Robert H. and Picker, Randal C. (1994), Game Theory and the Law , Cambridge (MA), Harvard University Press.

Baird, John S. (1982), 'Conservation of the Commons: Effects of Group Cohesiveness and Prior Sharing', 10 Journal of Community Psychology , 210-215.

Baland, Jean-Marie and Platteau, Jean-Philippe (1994), Should Common Property Resources be Privatized? A Re-Examination of the Tragedy of the Commons , Cahiers de la FacultŽ des Sciences Economiques et Sociales, Collection "DŽveloppement", Namur (Belgium), FacultŽ des Sciences Economiques et Sociales, FacultŽs Universitaire Notre-Dame de la Paix, No. 143.

Bardhan, Pranab K. (1993), 'Symposium on Management of Local Commons', 7 Journal of Economic Perspectives , 87-92.

Bardhan, Pranab K. (1993), 'Analytics of the Institutions of Informal Cooperation in Rural Development', 21 World Development , 633-639.

Bardhan, Pranab K. (ed.) (1989), The Economic Theory of Agrarian Institutions , Oxford, Clarendon.

Barnes, David W. and Stout, Lynn A. (1992), Economics of Property Rights and Nuisance Law , West Publishing.

Barrett, Scott (1990), 'The Problem of Global Environmental Protection', 6(1) Oxford Review of Economic Policy , 68-79.

Barzel, Yoram (1991), Economic Analysis of Property Rights , New York, Cambridge University Press.

Bauer, C. (1983), 'A Tragedy of the Commons?', 3 Free Market Magazine , 18-22.

Becker, Nir (1990), 'Common Property Resources and Prisoner's Dilemma Games: The Missing Linkage', presented at the first annual conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property', Durham (NC) , 27-30.

Becker, Nir and Easter, K. William (1992), 'Dynamic Supply from Common Property Resource: Water Diversions from the Great Lakes', 6(4) Natural Resource Modeling , 343-371.

Behnke, Roy H., Jr. (1984), 'Fenced and Open-Range Ranching: The Commercialization of Pastoral Land and Livestock in Africa', in Simpson, J.R. and Evangelou, P. (eds.), Livestock Development in Sub-Saharan Africa, Boulder (CO) , Boulder, Westview Press.

Behnke, Roy H., Jr. (1985), Open-Range Management and Property Rights in Pastoral Africa: A Case of Spontaneous Range Enclosure in South Darfur, Sudan , London, Overseas Development Institute.

Bell, Frederick W. (1986), 'Mitigating the Tragedy of the Commons', 52 Southern Economic Journal , 653-664.

Benjamin, Paul, Lam, Wai Fung, Ostrom, Elinor and Shivakoti, Ganesh (1994), Institutions, Incentives, and Irrigation in Nepal, Decentralization: Finance & Management Project Report , Burlington (VT), Associates in Rural Development.

Benson, Bruce L. (1986), 'Boom Towns in the West: Is Profit the Culprit?', 11 Review of Regional Economics and Business , 27-38.

Benson, Bruce L. (1986), 'The Lost Victim and Other Failures of the Public Law Experiment', 9 Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy , 399-427.

Benson, Bruce L. (1988), 'An Institutional Explanation for Corruption of Criminal Justice Officials', 8(1) Cato Journal , 139-163.

Benson, Bruce L. (1988), 'Corruption in Law Enforcement: One Consequence of "The Tragedy of the Commons" Arising with Public Allocation Processes', 8 International Review of Law and Economics , 73-84.

Benson, Bruce L. (1994), 'Are Public Goods Really Common Pools: Considerations of the Evolution of Policing and Highways in England', 39 Economic Inquiry , 249-271.

Benson, Bruce L. (1994), 'Emerging From the Hobbesian Jungle: Might Takes and Makes Rights', 5 Constitutional Political Economy , 129-158. Reprinted inTranslated into Spanish and republished (1995) Las Instituciones y Los Derechos de Propiedad al Emerger de la Jungla Hobbesiana: La Fuerza Quita los Reprinted Derechos y los Crea Libertas, 12, 35-75.

Benson, Bruce L. (1995), Privatization in Criminal Justice , Independent Policy Report, Oakland, Independent Institute.

Benson, Bruce L. (1995), 'Rights, Entitlements, and Individual Responsibility in the Welfare State', in Karslon, Nils (ed.), Can the Present Problems of Mature Welfare States Such as Sweden be Solved? , Stockholm, City University Press, 88-98.

Benson, Bruce L. (1995), Toxic Torts by Government , Independent Policy Report, Oakland, Independent Institute.

Benson, Bruce L. (1996), 'Uncertainty, the Race for Property Rights, and Rent Dissipation due to Judicial Changes in Product Liability Tort Law', Cultural Dynamics .

Benson, Bruce L. (1996), 'Restitution in Theory and in Practice', 12 Journal of Libertarian Studies , 75-98.

Benson, Bruce L. and Baden, John A. (1985), 'The Political Economy of Government Corruption: The Logic of Underground Government', 14 Journal of Legal Studies , 391-410.

Benson, Bruce L. and Wollan, Laurin A., Jr. (1989), 'Prison Overcrowding and Judicial Incentives', 3 Madison Paper Series , 1-22.

Benson, Bruce L. and Wollan, Laurin A., Jr. (1991), 'Increasing Judicial Responsibility Can Reduce Prison Overcrowding in America's Prisons: Opposing Viewpoints', in Tipp, Stacey L. (ed.), San Diego, Greenhaven Press, 139-144.

Berck, Peter and Perloff, Jeffrey M. (1985), 'The Commons as a Natural Barrier to Entry: Why There Are So Few Fish Farms', 67 American Journal of Agricultural Economics , 360-363.

Beres, L. R. (1973), 'Bipolarity, Multipolarity, and Tragedy of the Commons', 26 Western Political Quarterly , 649-658.

Berge, Erling and Stenseth, Nils C (1995), Law and the Management of Renewable Resources , Trondheim, Norway, Department of Sociology and Political Science, University of Trondheim.

Bergstrom, John C. and Centner, Terence J. (1989), 'Agricultural Nuisances and Right to Farm Laws', 19 Review of Regional Studies , 23-30.

Berkes, Fikret (1983), The Critique of the 'Tragedy of Commons' Paradigm , Canada, Quebec City, presented at the ICAES, August 1983.

Berkes, Fikret (1992), 'Common Property Resources: Ecology and Community-Based Sustainable Development and Success and Failure in Marine Coastal Fisheries of Turkey', in Bromley, Daniel W (ed.), Making the Commons Work: Theory, Practice, and Policy , San Francisco, ICS Press, 161-182.

Berkes, Fikret, Feeny, David, McCay, Bonnie J. and Acheson, James M. (1989), 'The Benefits of the Commons', 340(6229) Nature , 91-93.

Blaikie, Piers M. and Brookfield, Harold C. (1987), Land Degradation and Society , New York, Methuen.

Blewett, Robert A. (1994), Property Rights as a Cause of the Tragedy of the Commons: Institutional Change and the Pastoral Maasai in Kenya , presented at the annual meetings of the Public Choice Society, Austin, University of Texas.

Blomquist, William (1992), Dividing the Waters: Governing Groundwater in Southern California , San Francisco, ICS Press.

Blomquist, William and Ostrom, Elinor (1985), 'Institutional Capacity and the Resolution of a Commons Dilemma', 5(2) Policy Studies Review , 383-393.

Bockstael, Nancy E., Strand, Ivar E., Jr. and Lipton, Douglas W. (1992), 'Pulsed Generic Advertising: The Case of Common Property', 7(4) Marine Resource Economics , 189-208.

Bšhm, Stephan (1987), 'Handlungsrechte, Wettbewerb Und Privatisierung (Property Rights, Competition and Privatization)', 34 Wirtschaftspolitische BlŠtter , 576-583.

Bolle, Friedel (1986), 'On the Oligopolistic Extraction of Non-Renewable Common-Pool Resources', 53 Economica , 519-527.

Bottomley, Anthony (1963), 'The Effect of Common Ownership of Land upon Resource Allocation in Tripolitania', 39 Land Economics , 91-95.

Boulding, Kenneth E. (1977), 'Commons and Community: The Idea of a Public', in Hardin, Garrett and Baden, John (eds.), Managing the Commons , San Francisco, Freeman.

Boyce, John R. (1992), 'Individual Transferable Quotas and Production Externalities in a Fishery', 6(4) Natural Resource Modeling , 385-408.

Boyce, John R. (1993), 'Using Participation Data to Estimate Fishing Costs for Commercial Salmon Fisheries in Alaska', 8(4) Marine Resource Economics , 367-394.

Bromley, Daniel W. (1978), 'Property Rules, Liability Rules, and Environmental Economics', 12 Journal of Economic Issues , 43-60.

Bromley, Daniel W. (1985), 'Common Property Issues in International Development', 5 Bostid Developments , 12-15.

Bromley, Daniel W. (1989), Economic Interests and Institutions: The Conceptual Foudations of Public Policy , New York, Blackwell, 274 p.

Bromley, Daniel W. (1991), 'Testing for Common Versus Private Property: Comment on J. S. Clark and G. A. Carlson', 21 Journal of Environmental Economics and Management , 92-96.

Bromley, Daniel W. (1991), Environment and Economy: Property Rights and Public Policy , Cambridge (MA), Blackwell.

Bromley, Daniel W. (1992), 'The Commons, Common Property, and Environmental Policy', 2(1) Environmental and Resource Economics , 1-17.

Bromley, Daniel W. (1992), 'The Commons, Property, and Common-Property Regimes', in Bromley, Daniel W. (ed.), Making the Commons Work: Theory, Practice, and Policy , San Francisco, ICS Press, 3-15.

Bromley, Daniel W. and Cernea, Michael M. (1989), The Management of Common Property Natural Resources: Some Conceptual and Operational Fallacies , Discussion Paper, Washington, World Bank, No. 57.

Bromley, Daniel W. and othersXXX (eds.) (1992), Making the Commons Work: Theory, Practice, and Policy , San Francisco, ICS Press.

Brox, Ottar (1990), 'The Common Property Theory: Epistemological Status and Analytical Utility', 49 Human Organization , 227-235.

Bruce, John W. (1995), Legal Bases for the Management of Land-Based Natural Resources as Common Property, Forests, Trees and People Programme , Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).

Bruce, John W. and Migot-Adholla, Shem E. (1994), Searching for Land Tenure Security in Africa , Dubuque (IA), Kendall/Hunt.

Bruce, John W., Fortmann, Louise and Nhira, Calvin (1993), 'Tenures in Transition, Tenures in Conflict: Examples from the Zimbabwe Social Forest', 58 Rural Sociology , 626-642.

Bruggink, Thomas H. (1992), 'Third Party Effects of Groundwater Law in the United States: Private versus Common Property', 51(1) American Journal of Economics and Sociology , 1-17.

Bruggink, Thomas H. (1992), 'Privatization versus Groundwater Central Management: Public Policy Choices to Prevent a Water Crisis in the 1990s', 51(2) American Journal of Economics and Sociology , 205-222.

Bruno, S. (1990), 'Institutions Matter: The Comparative Analysis of Institutions', 34 European Economic Review , 443-449.

Buchanan, James M. (1968), 'Congestion on the Commons: A Case for Government Intervention', 33 Il Politico: Revista Italiana Di Scienze Politiche , 776-786.

Buchanan, James M. (1973), 'The Institutional Structure of Externality', 14 Public Choice , 69-82.

Buchanan, James M. and Tullock, Gordon (1962), The Calculus of Consent: Logical Foundations of Constitutional Democracy , Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press.

Calabresi, Guido and Melamed, A. Douglas (1972), 'Property Rules, Liability Rules and Inalienability: One View of the Cathedral', 85 Harvard Law Review , 1089-1128. Reprinted in Ackerman, Bruce A., Economic Foundations of Property Law, Boston, Little Brown, 1975, 31-48.

Caputo, Michael R. and Lueck, Dean (1994), 'Modeling Common Property Ownership as a Dynamic Contract', 8(3) Natural Resource Modeling , 225-245.

Carroll, Thomas M., Ciscil, David H. and Chisholm, R.K. (1979), 'Market as a Commons: Unconventional View of Property Rights', 13 Journal of Economic Issues , 605-627.

Casimir, Michael J. (1990), 'The Determinants of Rights to Pasture: Territorial Organization and Ecological Constraints', in Casimir, M. J. and Rao, A (eds.), Mobility and Territoriality , New York, Berg.

Cass, Robert C. and Edney, Julian J. (1978), 'The Commons Dilemma: A Simulation Testing the Effects of Resource Visibility and Territorial Division', 6 Human Ecology , 371-386.

Centner, Terence J. (1986), 'Agricultural Nuisances and the Georgia Right to Farm Law', 22 Georgia State Bar Journal , 19-26.

Centner, Terence J. (1988), 'Agricultural Nuisances Under the Amended Georgia 'Right-to-Farm' Law', 25 Georgia State Bar Journal , 36-41.

Cernea, Michael M. (1991), Putting People First: Sociological Variables in Rural Development , Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Christy, Francis T. (1964), The Exploitation of a Common Property Natural Resource: The Maryland Oyster Industry , University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Ph.D. Dissertation.

Christy, Francis T. (1973), Fisherman Quotas: A Tentative suggestion for Domestic Management , University of Rhode Island, Law of the Sea Institute.

Ciriacy-Wantrup, Siegfried V. (1963), Resource Conservation: Economics and Policies , Berkeley, University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences.

Ciriacy-Wantrup, Siegfried V. and Bishop, Richard C. (1975), ''Common Property' as a Concept in Natural Resource Policy', 15 Natural Resources Journal , 713-727.

Clark, Colin W. (1976), Mathematical Bioeconomics: The Optimal Management of Renewable Resources , New York, Wiley.

Clark, Colin W. (1980), 'Restricted Access to Common-Property Fishery Resources: A Game Theoretic Analysis', in Lin, P.T. (ed.), Dynamic Optimization and Mathematical Economics , New York, Plenum, 117-132.

Clark, J. Stephen and Carlson, Gerald A. (1990), 'Testing for Common versus Private Property: The Case of Pesticide Resistance', 19 Journal of Environmental Economics and Management , 45-60.

Clarke, Harry R. (1994), 'The Welfare Effects of Labour Force Growth with Internationally Mobile Capital', 7(1) Journal of Population Economics , 79-98.

Clemhout, Simone and Wan, Henry, Jr. (1990), 'Environmental Problem as a Common Property Resource Game', in Hamalainen, Raimo Pertti, Ehtamo, Harri Kalevi, (eds.), Dynamic games in economic analysis: Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Differential Games and Applications, August 9 10, Helsinki University of Technology, Finland. Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences, vol. 157 , New York, Springer, 132-154.

Cleveland, Cutler (1995), The Relationship between Ecosystems and Human Systems: Scale Challenges in Linking Property Rights Systems and Natural Resource Management , presented at 'Reinventing the Commons,' the fifth annual conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Bodoe, Norway.

Cnossen, Sijbren and Vollebergh, Herman (1992), 'Toward a Global Excise on Carbon', 45(1) National Tax Journal , 23-36.

Commons, John R. (1968), Legal Foundations of Capitalism , Madison, University of Wisconsin.

Conybeare, John A. C. and Sandler, Todd (1993), 'State Sponsored Violence as a Tragedy of the Commons: England's Privateering Wars with France and Spain, 1625 1630', 77(4) Public Choice , 879-897.

Cooter, Robert D. (1991), 'Inventing Market Property: The Land Courts of Papua New Guinea', 25 Law and Society Review , 759-801.

Cooter, Robert D. (1992), 'Organization as Property: Economic Analysis of Property Law and Privatization', in Clague, Christopher and Rausser, Gordon (eds.), The Emergence of Market Economies in Eastern Europe , Oxford, Blackwell, 77-97.

Copes, Parzival (1984), 'The Market as an Open Access Commons: A Neglected Aspect of Excess Capacity', 132 De Economist , 49-60.

Copes, Parzival (1986), 'A Critical Review of the Individual Quota as a Device in Fisheries Management', 62 Land Economics , 278-291.

Cordell, John C. and McKean, Margaret A. (1992), 'Sea Tenure in Bahia, Brazil', in Bromley, Daniel W. (ed.), Making the Commons Work: Theory, Practice, and Policy , San Francisco, ICS Press, 183-205.

Cornes, Richard and Sandler, Todd (1986), The Theory of Externalities, Public Goods and Club Goods , Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 303 p.

Cornes, Richard and Sandler, Todd (1986), 'On Commons and Tragedies', 83 American Economic Review , 787-792.

Cornes, Richard, Mason, Charles F. and Sandler, Todd (1986), 'The Commons and the Optimal Number of Firms', 101 Quarterly Journal of Economics , 641-646.

Coward, E. Walter, Jr. (1980), Irrigation and Agricultural Development in Asia: Perspectives from the Social Sciences , Ithaca (NY), Cornell University Press.

Cox, Susan J.B. (1985), Flawed Perceptions in the Foundations of Public Policy: The Case of Hardin's Tragedy of the Commons , presented at the Southern Political Science Association annual meeting, Nashville (TN).

Cox, Susan J.B. (1985), 'No Tragedy on the Commons', 7 Environmental Ethics , 49-61.

Crawford, Sue E.S. and Ostrom, Elinor (1995), 'A Grammar of Institutions', 89 American Political Science Review , 582-600.

Croucher, Jack (1989), The Use and Management of Common Property Resources: A Collective Action/Club Good Approach , University of Pennsylvania, Ph.D. dissertation.

Cruz, Wilfrido D. (1986), 'Overfishing and Conflict in a Traditional Fishery: San Miguel Bay, Philippines', in X (ed.), National Research Council, Proceedings of the Conference on Common Property Resource Management , Washington, National Academy Press, 115-135.

Curtis, Donald (1991), Beyond Government: Organizations for Common Benefit , London, MacMillan.

Dahl, Robert A. and Lindblom, Charles E. (1963), Politics, Economics and Welfare: Planning and Politico-Economic Systems Resolved into Basic Social Processes , New York, Harper and Row.

Dahlman, Carl J. (1980), The Open Field System and Beyond: A Property Right , Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 234 p.

Dales, John H. (1968), Pollution, Property, and Prices: An Essay in Policy-making and Economics , Toronto, University of Toronto Press.

Dasgupta, Partha S. (1982), The Control of Resources , Cambridge (MA), Harvard University Press.

Dasgupta, Partha S. and Heal, Geoffrey M. (1979), Economic Theory and Exhaustible Resources , Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 501 p.

Dawes, Robyn M. (1973), 'The Commons Dilemma Game: An N-Person Mixed-Motive Game with a Dominating Strategy for Defection', 13 Oregon Research Institute Bulletin , 1-12.

Dawes, Robyn M., McTavish, Jeanne and Shaklee, Harriet (1977), 'Behavior, Communication, and Assumptions about Other People's Behavior in a Commons Dilemma Situation', 35 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 1-11.

De Alessi, Louis (1980), 'The Economics of Property Rights: A Review of the Evidence', 2 Research in Law and Economics , 1-47.

De Alessi, Louis (1982), 'On the Nature and Consequences of Private and Public Enterprises', 67 Minnesota Law Review , 191-209.

De Geest, Gerrit (1994), 'Private versus gemene eigendom: de 'Tragedy of the Commons' herbekeken (Private versus Common Property: The 'Tragedy of the Commons' Reconsidered)', 1994(2) Recht der Werkelijkheid , 132-146. Reprinted in Raes, Koen and Willekens, Harry (eds.), Economische verklaringen van het recht, 's-Gravenhage, Vuga, 1994.

De Meza, David and Gould, J.R. (1985), 'Free Access vs. Private Ownership: A Comparison', 36 Journal of Economic Theory , 387-391.

De Meza, David and Gould, J.R. (1987), 'Free Access Versus Private Property in a Resource: Income Distributions Compared', 95 Journal of Political Economy , 1317-1325.

Degenkamp, J.Th. and Heynen, H.M. (1980), 'Juridische en economische eigendom. Een formele analyse (Legal and Economic Ownership. A Formal Analysis)', in X (ed.), Tolvrije gedachten , Deventer, Kluwer, 117-129.

Demsetz, Harold (1964), 'The Exchange and Enforcement of Property Rights', 7 Journal of Law and Economics , 11-26.

Demsetz, Harold (1966), 'Some Aspects of Property Rights', 9 Journal of Law and Economics , 61-70.

Demsetz, Harold (1967), 'Toward a Theory of Property Rights', 57 American Economic Review , 347-359. Reprinted in Demsetz, Harold (1988), Ownership, Control and the Firm: The Organization of Economic Activity, Vol. I, Cambridge: Basil Blackwell, 104-116

Devany, Arthur S. (1969), 'A Property System for Market Allocation of Electro-Magnetic Spectrum: A Legal-Economic-Engineering Study', 30 Stanford Law Review , 1499-1561.

Dixon, Lloyd S. (1991), 'Common Property Aspects of Ground Water Use and Drainage Generation', in Dinar, Ariel and Zilberman, David (eds.), The economics and management of water and drainage in agriculture. , Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 677-697.

Dnes, Anthony W. (1986), The European Communities' Common Fisheries Policy: A Critique , Hume Occasional Paper, Edinburgh, No. 6.

Dnes, Antony W. (1985), 'Rent Seeking Behaviour and Open Access Fishing', 32 Scottish Journal of Political Economy , 159-170.

Dnes, Antony W. (1986), The European Communities' Common Fisheries Policy : A Critique , Hume Occasional Paper, Edinburgh, No. 6.

Dnes, Antony W. (1988), 'The Efficiency of Central Planning', 35 Scottish Journal of Political Economy , 404-410.

Dnes, Antony W. (1988), 'Rent Seeking, Entrepreneurship, Subjectivism and Property Rights : A Comment', 144 Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics , 891-893.

Dnes, Antony W. (1989), 'Rent Seeking, Conflict and Property Rights', 36 Scottish Journal of Political Economy , 366-374.

Doane, Michael J. and Spulber, Daniel F. (1994), 'Open Access and the Evolution of the U.S. Spot Market for Natural Gas', 37(2) Journal of Law and Economics , 477-517.

Douglas, Roy (1991), 'The Commons and Property Rights: Towards a Synthesis of Demography and Ecology', in Andelson, R.V. (ed.), Commons Without Tragedy: The Social Ecology of Land Tenure and Democracy , London, Centre for Incentive Taxation.

Dudley, Dean (1993), Essays on Individual Behavior in Social Dilemma Environments: An Experimental Analysis , Indiana University, Ph.D. Dissertation.

Dudley, Norman J. (1992), 'Water Allocation by Markets, Common Property and Capacity Sharing: Companions or Competitors?', 32(4) Natural Resources Journal , 757-778.

Dufournaud, C. M., Quinn, J. T. and Harrington, Joseph E., Jr. (1994), 'A Partial Equilibrium Analysis of the Impact of Introducing More Efficient Wood Burning Stoves into Households in the Sahelian Region', 26(3) Environment and Planning , 407-414.

Dutta, Prajit K. and Sundaram, Rangarajan K. (1993), 'How Different Can Strategic Models Be?', 60(1) Journal of Economic Theory , 42-61.

Dutta, Prajit K. and Sundaram, Rangarajan K. (1993), 'The Tragedy of the Commons?', 3(3) Economic Theory , 413-426.

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