Am Jur 2d - Damages § 2

I. Introduction, § 2 - Other terms distinguished

Although the words "damages," "damage," and "injury" are sometimes used synonymously, there is a material distinction between them. Injury is the illegal invasion of a legal right;[1] damage is the loss, hurt, or harm that results from the injury;[2] and damages are the recompense or compensation awarded for the damage suffered.[3]

Observation:

The above distinctions are not always followed. Sometimes, the words "damage" and "injury" are used interchangeably and, within legislative meaning and judicial interpretation, import loss, harm, or hurt.[4] Then, "damages" means compensation for the legal injury sustained.[5] It is also said that damages are a measure of injury.[6]

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1   Bowman v. City of Davenport, 243 Iowa 1135, 53 N.W.2d 249, 63 A.L.R.2d 853 (1952) ; Rosnick v. Marks, 218 Neb. 499, 357 N.W.2d 186 (1984) ; Carroll v. Rye Tp., 13 N.D. 458, 101 N.W. 894 (1904) .
 Injury is the wrongful act that caused the loss. Monsanto Co. v. Miller, 455 N.E.2d 392 (Ind. Ct. App. 1983) .
 "Injury" means something done against the right of the party, producing damage, whereas "damage" is the harm, detriment, or loss sustained by reason of the injury. Sohm v. Dixie Eye Center, 2007 UT App 235, 166 P.3d 614 (Utah Ct. App. 2007) .

2   Hanna v. Martin, 49 So. 2d 585 (Fla. 1950) ; Jackson v. St. Louis-San Francisco Ry. Co., 357 Mo. 998, 211 S.W.2d 931 (1948) ; Rosnick v. Marks, 218 Neb. 499, 357 N.W.2d 186 (1984) ; Sager v. McClenden, 296 Or. 33, 672 P.2d 697 (1983) ; Sohm v. Dixie Eye Center, 2007 UT App 235, 166 P.3d 614 (Utah Ct. App. 2007) .

3   Monsanto Co. v. Miller, 455 N.E.2d 392 (Ind. Ct. App. 1983) ; Turcotte v. De Witt, 333 Mass. 389, 131 N.E.2d 195 (1955) ; Jackson v. St. Louis-San Francisco Ry. Co., 357 Mo. 998, 211 S.W.2d 931 (1948) ; Rosnick v. Marks, 218 Neb. 499, 357 N.W.2d 186 (1984) ; Sager v. McClenden, 296 Or. 33, 672 P.2d 697 (1983) ; Employers Mut. Liability Ins. Co. v. De Bruin, 271 Wis. 412, 73 N.W.2d 479 (1955) .

4   In re City of Pittsburgh, 243 Pa. 392, 90 A. 329 (1914) .
 In negligence actions, "injury" is typically defined as "any harm caused to a person, such as a broken bone, a cut, or a bruise." Sohm v. Dixie Eye Center, 2007 UT App 235, 166 P.3d 614 (Utah Ct. App. 2007) .
 As to whether damage is presumed from injury, see § 5 .

5   Frankel v. U.S., 321 F. Supp. 1331 (E.D. Pa. 1970) , judgment aff'd, 466 F.2d 1226 (3d Cir. 1972) .

6   Kozar v. Chesapeake & O. Ry. Co., 449 F.2d 1238 (6th Cir. 1971) ; Macon-Bibb County Water and Sewerage Authority v. Tuttle/White Constructors, Inc., 530 F. Supp. 1048 (M.D. Ga. 1981) ; Rosnick v. Marks, 218 Neb. 499, 357 N.W.2d 186 (1984) .

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